摩訶般若波羅蜜多心經

摩訶般若波羅蜜多心經[1]梵文प्रज्ञापारमिताहृदयसूत्रPrajñāpāramitā Hṛdaya Sūtra),又稱《般若波羅密多心經》,簡稱《般若心經》、《心經》,是般若經系列中一部極為重要的經典。《心經》言簡義豐、博大精深、提綱挈領,直明「第一義諦」,集中展現了般若學的精髓,為大乘佛教出家及在家佛教徒日常背誦的佛經。「色即是空,空即是色」一句即出自該部經文。

釋迦牟尼佛初轉法輪先說四聖諦,即苦集滅道。滅諦中提及涅槃,為了闡釋涅槃的內涵及意義,佛陀更深入說明空性之理。第二轉無相法輪,藉由對空性的認知,證明煩惱是可以斷除的,從色法到一切遍智空,一切法皆無自性。有些論師不了解甚深空性,佛陀便對無自性再做解釋,第三轉善分別法輪的《解深密經》、《如來藏經》、慈氏菩薩的《相續本母經》,詳細說明心的體性是惟明惟知,具有原始自然之光明。

般若經》及諸部般若,為佛陀在二轉無相法輪時所宣說,乃大乘佛法中之深法。在藏傳的經論中經常提到:「佛說八萬四千法門中,般若法門最為殊勝。」

《般若經》的內涵以空性為主,透過對空性的了解能斷除煩惱障而得到小乘的涅槃,即聲聞獨覺的菩提果位;也能夠透過對空性的認識,再加上福德資糧的圓滿,能徹底斷除所知障而獲得大乘的涅槃,即無上的菩提果位。因為解了空性貫穿三乘,故解空被稱為三乘之母,詮釋它的般若經亦稱為母般若。《般若波羅密多心經》即是《大般若經》的心髓,全部般若的精義皆設於此經[2],故名為《心經》。

佛說《心經》的緣起,是在靈鷲山中部,為諸菩薩聲聞弟子所圍繞,當時觀自在菩薩正在觀修般若波羅密多、專注思惟觀修而照見五蘊皆自性空。心經主要內涵是舍利子與觀自在菩薩有關性空的問答。佛出定後,認可菩薩所說,歡喜讚嘆。

心經內涵可分兩種,顯義與隱義。顯義為觀空正見,為龍樹菩薩的《中論》所闡釋。隱義則為現觀道次第,間接顯示性空所依的有法,為彌勒菩薩所造的《現觀莊嚴論》所詮釋。

有學者認為《心經》經文結構之來源,大部分出於《大般若經》第二會觀照品第三之二,即《大品般若》習應品第三)。「般若波羅密多是大神咒……」一段,出於《大般若經》第二會功德品第三十二,即《大品般若》勸持品第三十四。咒文則出於《佛說陀羅尼集經》第三卷,般若大心陀羅尼第十六。故《心經》是出自《般若經》的精髓,附加密咒真言,同時奉請觀自在菩薩為其說法主,才完成現今《心經》組織的型態[3]

大般若經》中所開示之般若法門是專為已發菩提心之眾菩薩們所宣說的。其最重要的觀念在於以性空智慧覺悟諸法實相(即一切外在事物的名相,皆是自心的虛妄分別而已),既不體證、進入涅槃而自願生生世世輪迴生死救度眾生,其行為看似有違一般所認知的脫離輪迴觀念,而實際上這才是《大般若經》開悟菩薩的主旨所在。因為以慈悲喜捨之心平等救護一切眾生才是真菩薩行,而自己逃離生死輪迴卻棄眾生於不顧則有違菩薩自度度他之初衷誓願。

在《大般若經》中數度出現 「菩薩摩訶薩普為利樂諸有情故,求趣無上正等菩提」與 「觀諸法皆空,不捨一切有情」字句。此即表示若離開對眾生的慈悲濟度,則一切修行的意義則大打折扣,不能最終成就無上菩提正果。 註:性空:自性本空。而非空性。自性,不生不滅,不垢不淨,不增不減,沒有所謂空不空的問題。若用空性二字,即顛倒字句,非原義。

http://zh.wikipedia.org/wiki/%E6%91%A9%E8%A8%B6%E8%88%AC%E8%8B%A5%E6%B3%A2%E7%BE%85%E8%9C%9C%E5%A4%9A%E5%BF%83%E7%B6%93

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THE HEART SUTRA

Om Homage to the Perfection of Wisdom the Lovely, the Holy !

Avalokita, the Holy Lord and Bodhisattva, was moving in the deep course of the Wisdom which has gone beyond.

He looked down from on high, He beheld but five heaps, and He saw that in their own-being they were empty.

Here, O Sariputra,

form is emptiness and the very emptiness is form ;

emptiness does not differ from form, form does not differ from emptiness, whatever is emptiness, that is form,

the same is true of feelings, perceptions, impulses, and consciousness.

Here, O Sariputra,

all dharmas are marked with emptiness ;

they are not produced or stopped, not defiled or immaculate, not deficient or complete.

Therefore, O Sariputra,

in emptiness there is no form nor feeling, nor perception, nor impulse, nor consciousness ;

No eye, ear, nose, tongue, body, mind ; No forms, sounds, smells, tastes, touchables or objects of mind ; No sight-organ element, and so forth, until we come to :

No mind-consciousness element ; There is no ignorance, no extinction of ignorance, and so forth, until we come to : There is no decay and death, no extinction of decay and death. There is no suffering, no origination, no stopping, no path.

There is no cognition, no attainment and no non-attainment.

Therefore, O Sariputra,

it is because of his non-attainmentness that a Bodhisattva, through having relied on the Perfection of Wisdom, dwells without thought-coverings. In the absence of thought-coverings he has not been made to tremble,

he has overcome what can upset, and in the end he attains to Nirvana.

All those who appear as Buddhas in the three periods of time fully awake to the utmost, right and perfect Enlightenment because they have relied on the Perfection of Wisdom.

Therefore one should know the prajnaparamita as the great spell, the spell of great knowledge, the utmost spell, the unequalled spell, allayer of all suffering, in truth — for what could go wrong ? By the prajnaparamita has this spell been delivered. It runs like this :

gate gate paragate parasamgate bodhi svaha.

( Gone, gone, gone beyond, gone altogether beyond, O what an awakening, all-hail ! — )

This completes the Heart of perfect Wisdom.

(Translated by E. Conze)

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