1. ad hoc [ˈædˈhɔk]
(1) Formed for or concerned with one specific purpose ;
(2) Improvised and often impromptu
The meetings will be held on an ad hoc basis.
a meeting held ad hoc (特別舉行的會議)
2. ad hominem [ˌædˈhɔminem] (adj.)(adv.)僅從個人愛好(或偏見)出發的;人身攻擊的
(1) Appealing to personal considerations rather than to logic or reason:
Debaters should avoid ad hominem arguments that question their
(2) Ad hominem is a phrase from Latin which means “aimed at the man."
It’s almost always used to describe a way of arguing or criticizing that
ignores the larger issues at hand and just attacks someone’s character.
Unfortunately, political battles in the media often boil down to ad hominem
attacks instead of thoughtful debate.
3. alter ego /ˈæltɚ ‘igo; ˈɔl-/ (n.)第二個我;心腹朋友
a second self; a perfect substitute or deputy:
His adviser acts as his alter ego during his absence.
4. de facto /ˈde ‘fækto/ 實際上存在的（不一定合法）
The general took de facto control of the country.
5. de jure /de ‘dʒurɪ/ 根據法律；在法律上
He held power de jure and de facto
(= both according to the law and in reality).
6. ex post facto [ˈeks pəust ˈfæktəu] 事後的(地)
applying to and affecting things that are in the past
The University’s new policy on the number of units needed
to graduate will apply ex post facto for those students
already enrolled this year. (retroactively) adverb
7. modus operandi /ˈmodəs ˈɑpə’rændi/ 做法,工作方法; (罪犯的)慣技,一貫手法
He says trial and error is the modus operandi of his management team.
8. modus vivendi /ˈmodəs vɪ’vɛndi/ 臨時解決辦法,過渡辦法,臨時協定
We managed to achieve a kind of modus vivendi.
9. a fortiori 更加;更不必說了
If he can afford a luxury yacht, then a fortiori he can afford to
pay his debts.
10. a posteriori /’e ˈpɑstɪrɪ’ɔraɪ/ 從事實推斷原因；由果及因
from particular instances to a general principle or law;
based upon actual observation or upon experimental data:
an a posteriori argument that derives the theory from the evidence.
11. a priori 由因及果的,演繹的,先驗的
An a priori argument, reason, or probability is based on an assumed
principle or fact, rather than on actual observed facts.
One assumes, a priori, that a parent would be better at dealing
12. caveat emptor /’kævɪˈæt ‘ɛmptɔr/ 貨物出門概不退換；買主留心
The sale is subject to the caveat emptor principle.
13. corpus delicti 犯罪事實
Law. The material evidence in a homicide, such as the discovered
corpse of a murder victim, showing that a crime has been committed.
14. status quo 現狀；原來的狀況
There are many people who wish to maintain the status quo.
Because things are so handsome, the pharmaceutical industry has a
vested interest in maintaining the status quo.
(Scientific American Apr 21, 2011)