1.寫論文好用動詞 (Reporting Verbs):
to make clear : ELUCIDATE 闡明;啟發 This text illuminates the philosopher's early thinking. (這篇課文解釋了這位哲學家的早期思想。) I thought he wrote an excellent memo that illuminated all of the difficult issues that we need to address on this project. (clarified, elucidated) elaborate to expand something in detail 詳盡闡述 <would you care to elaborate on that statement> He said he had new evidence, but refused to elaborate any further. McDonald refused to elaborate on his reasons for resigning. elucidate to give a clarifying explanation 闡明;說明 The notes helped to elucidate the most difficult parts of the text. (這些註釋有助於弄清文中最難懂的部分。) When asked for details, he declined to elucidate further. Their objectives and methods require further elucidation. (他們的目標和方法都需要進一步闡明。) explicate to explain an idea in detail 解釋;辯明; 闡述 We shall have to explicate its basic assumptions before we can assess its implications. The jury listened to his impassioned explication of article 306. Artists are increasingly aware of the need to explicate their work. (New York Times Sep 17, 2010) expound explain or talk about something in detail 解釋;詳細 述說 Political news gets old really fast when you have to listen to pundits expound about the shortcomings of their opposing political party. (discuss in detail, explain) The professor decided to expound on the underlying message of the book for the entire 50-minute lecture. (discuss, explain) expatiate to speak or write at length or in detail 細說;詳述 If you ask this professor a question, he will expatiate on the topic until you'll wish you hadn't asked. (elaborate, expound) The naturalist is known for her willingness to expatiate on any number of issues relating to wildlife and the environment. *Illuminate and elucidate are synonymous in the context of making something complicated more clear. Both words are derived from Latin words that mean "light." Think, "shedding light on an issue," so that it is easier to see and understand. Both words are good, although elucidate may be a little more sophisticated. *Expound is derived from Old French espondre and from Latin exponere, “to explain.” Expound is a more succinct and sophisticated way of saying "explain in detail." Expound is similar in meaning to expatiate. *Expatiate can be a negative term used to describe someone who belabors a point by going on and on about it. You wouldn't say, "I can expatiate further." Instead, you would probably say, "I can expound (explain in detail) on the subject further." Expatiate is more of a negative description, but not always, for someone being long-winded in their speaking and writing, while expound is used to describe a detailed description or explanation. The difference is in the details!
(n.)破壞偶像者: Upon further review of Leonardo Da Vinci's work, you see he was somewhat of an iconoclast who questioned the church's teachings within his religious paintings. (heretic, dissident, nonconformist) icon|ocla|sm (n.)破壞偶像: Iconoclasm is the deliberate destruction of religious icons and other symbols or monuments, usually for religious or political motives. icon|ocla|stic (adj.)破壞偶像的: Is it utopian to hope that such iconoclastic ideas will gain ground? idol|atry (n.)偶像崇拜 Islamic law generally opposes any depiction of the prophet, even favorable, for fear it could lead to idolatry. (New York Times Sep 17, 2010) idol|ize (v.)偶像化 She blindly idolized her older sister, refusing to acknowledge her considerable faults. idol|atrous (adj.)偶像崇拜的 This custom survived until the latter half of the seventeenth century, when it was denounced as idolatrous.