annihilate [ə’naɪəleɪt] (v.)消滅;殲滅;毀滅;徹底擊敗nihil <nothing>

The human race has enough weapons to annihilate itself. 人類有足夠的武器滅絕自己。

She annihilated her opponent, who failed to win a single game. 她大獲全勝,對方連一局也沒有贏。

The naval force was annihilated during the attack. 在這次襲擊中海軍被徹底消滅了。

abolish [ə’bɒlɪʃ] (v.)廢除,廢止

The word abolish might stir up some historical connotations, since in the U.S. it’s commonly associated with bringing an end to slavery. In fact, those who opposed slavery were called “abolitionists." Coming to us from the Latin word abolere, meaning to “destroy, cause to die out, or retard the growth of," these days abolish is used bring a final and official-sounding end to laws, codes and other non-crowd pleasing practices.

Bad customs and laws ought to be abolished. 不良的習俗和法規應予以廢除。

The following year Parliament voted to abolish the death penalty for murder.

abrogate [‘æbrəʊgeɪt] (v.)廢除,廢止,撤銷(法律、協議等)

Abrogate means to abolish or avoid. When someone cuts in front of you in line, they are abrogating your right to be the next one served. When you cut in line, you are abrogating your responsibility to those who were in line before you.

The next prime minister could abrogate the treaty. = revoke

What if two mutually exclusive things make us happy, and one has to be abrogated? [The Guardian Sep 4,


annul [ə’nʌl] (v.) 1.廢除, 取消; 宣告…無效 (多用於marriagepolitics) 2.使消失; 抹去

Their marriage was annulled after just six months. 他們的婚姻僅過半年就宣告取消。

The poll, to be held on 13 January, was triggered by a court decision annulling former Labour minister Phil

Woolas’s victory in May. [BBC Jan 3, 2011]

decimate [‘desɪmeɪt] (v.)成批殺死;大量毀滅

The verb decimate originally referred to a form of capital punishment for Roman troops. If there was a rebellion, one out of every ten men (thus the dec in decimate) was put to death. So the word’s first expanded usage was to mean a ten percent reduction or a ten percent tax. Modern usage gives the word decimate its “drastically reduced" meaning, but the verb can also be used to mean “to wipe out" or “to eliminate."

Such facilities have cropped up all along Japan’s decimated northeastern coastline to hold victims found in

the subsiding floodwaters. [Wall Street Journal Mar 14, 2011]

The housing crisis had decimated the local economy, wiping out thousands of jobs that will probably never

return. [Washington Post Nov 23, 2010]

eradicate /ɪ’rædɪˈket/ (v.)連根拔除,根絕;消滅

We are determined to eradicate racism from our sport. 我們決心要杜絕體育競技活動中的種族歧視現象。


exterminate /ɪk’stɝməˈnet/ (v.)根除, 滅絕; 消滅

This spray will exterminate the termites. 這種噴劑能消滅白蟻。

You are carrying out an operation to exterminate a peaceful people and destroy a developing country.”

[BusinessWeek Mar 29, 2011]

They accounted for about one-sixth of all the Jews exterminated during the Holocaust. [Time Jan 28, 2010]

extirpate [‘ekstɜːpeɪt] (v.)1.使連根拔起2.滅絕;破除to remove or destroy completely

obliterate [ə’blɪtəreɪt] (v.)1.擦掉…的痕跡;沖刷(掉);消滅2.忘掉,忘卻

The heavy rain obliterated all footprints. 大雨沖掉了所有的腳印。

The building was completely obliterated by the bomb. 炸彈把那座建築物徹底摧毀了。

Anne was eager to obliterate her error. 安妮極想忘卻她的錯誤。

All of a sudden the view was obliterated by the fog. (寫景、詩意)

Perhaps she gets drunk to obliterate painful memories.

nullify [‘nʌlɪfaɪ] (v.)1.使失去法律效力;廢止2.使無效;抵消

Judges were unwilling to nullify government decisions. 法官們不願廢止政府決定。

An unhealthy diet will nullify the effects of training. 不健康的飲食會抵消鍛煉的效果。

vanquish [‘væŋkwɪʃ] (v.)征服, 擊敗; 克服, 抑制

He tried to vanquish his fears. 他努力克服恐懼心理。

Government troops have vanquished the rebels. 政府軍已經擊敗了叛亂分子。

Napoleon was vanquished at the battle of Waterloo in 1815.

Alan Gilbert, the music director, vanquished any “Nutcracker” fatigue with a delightfully vivid rendition.

[New York Times Jan 6, 2011]

void [vɔɪd] (v.)使無效;把…作廢To void something means to officially say that it is not valid. (FORMAL)

You may recognize void from the Old Testament passage describing creation: “The earth was without form and void, and darkness was over the face of the deep." In other words, nothing was there: pure emptiness. When you void something or make it void, you make it legally invalid, and that kind of void often goes with null. You might tell Cinderella, “If you’re not back by midnight, that arrangement with the pumpkin and the mice is null and void."

The Supreme Court threw out the confession and voided his conviction for murder.

They had to void the accusation for lack of evidence.



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