TOP 100 TOEFL Vocabulary Words

POWER VOCABULARRY BUILDER
TOP 100 TOEFL Vocabulary Words

 

For More Detailed Lessons and the
500 Most Frequently Tested

TOEFL Vocabulary Words Please Visit

abash

(verb)

DEFINITION

to make someone feel embarrassed, ashamed, or uncomfortable

SYNONYMS

confound, discomfit, shame, embarrass

ANTONYMS

embolden, reassure

USAGE EXAMPLES

Carol was abashed at her children’s rowdy behavior. (embarrassed, ashamed)
“I really shouldn’t have done that," John said abashedly. (in an ashamed manner)

abomination

(noun)

DEFINITION

1. something horrible or shameful; 2. intense dislike coupled with disgust; 3. an action that is vicious or vile

SYNONYMS

anathema, horror, atrocity, antipathy, revulsion, aversion, repugnance, disgust, loathing

ANTONYMS

enjoyment, delight, adoration

USAGE EXAMPLES

Randolphhad always regarded Roger’s habit of lying with abomination. (aversion, disgust)
The mistreatment of children at the daycare center was an abomination. (horror, atrocity)

adaptation

(noun)

DEFINITION

1. the process of adapting or adjusting to something; 2. the change resulting from adjusting to the environment or new circumstances; 3. the modification of something into a new form for a specific purpose

SYNONYMS

modification, adjustment, acclimation, conformation, alteration, change, variation, re-working

ANTONYMS

constancy

USAGE EXAMPLES

The movie was an adaptation of a best-selling novel. (re-working, modification)
Many European countries have found the adaptation from their previous currency to the EURO difficult. (change, adjustment)

adhere

(verb)

DEFINITION

1. to follow a rule or instructions; 2. to keep to an agreement; 3. to hold firmly to a belief, idea, or opinion; 4. to stick to the surface or an object

SYNONYMS

comply, obey, conform, heed, stick, cling to, attach, support

ANTONYMS

loosen, separate

USAGE EXAMPLES

We are being more stringent in making sure people adhere to coding standards and product check-off lists before we ship products. (conform, stick)
John forced himself to adhere to a strict diet in order to lose weight, but for most people, this type of weight loss is tough to maintain, because adherence to strict diet guidelines can be very difficult. (stick, comply)

adorn

(verb)

DEFINITION

to enhance or make more attractive with decoration or ornament

SYNONYMS

decorate, beautify, embellish, ornament, garnish

ANTONYMS

simplify

USAGE EXAMPLES

The beautiful, white horses were adorned with sparkling silver plumes. (decorated, beautified)
Such extravagant adornment is really not suitable for everyday wear. (ornamentation)

advent

(noun)

DEFINITION

the beginning or coming of something hoped for or of significance

SYNONYMS

dawning, onset, arrival

ANTONYMS

end, continuance

USAGE EXAMPLES

The advent of spring meant the deer would have a plentiful food supply once again. (arrival, onset)
With the advent of industrial machinery, many tasks which had previously been performed by humans could now be automated. (arrival)

alleviate

(verb)

DEFINITION

1. to relieve or lessen; 2. to make easier

SYNONYMS

mitigate, assuage, allay, lessen, lighten, relieve, ease

ANTONYMS

aggravate, intensify, increase, augment

USAGE EXAMPLES

The medication instantly alleviated the patient’s pain. (relieved, lightened)
Jon’s weekly phone calls were able to alleviate some of his mother’s worry while he was stationed overseas. (assuage, ease)

allot

(verb)

DEFINITION

1. to give out in small portions; 2. to allow to have

SYNONYMS

allocate, apportion, dispense, distribute, dole out, give out

ANTONYMS

withhold, keep, retain

USAGE EXAMPLES

Each candidate was allotted five minutes for his speech and three minutes for a rebuttal. (apportioned, given)
The bus driver allotted all of the front seats to the best-behaved children. (gave out, allocated)

assimilate

(verb)

DEFINITION

1. to make similar, esp. by absorption into a culture or population; 2. to take into the mind or system

SYNONYMS

integrate, incorporate, absorb, adjust, acculturate, adapt, conform, acclimatize, digest, grasp

ANTONYMS

separate, misunderstand, reject

USAGE EXAMPLES

She was quick to assimilate the new information, and that was part of what made her such a valuable employee. (grasp, absorb)
The children were quicker to assimilate than their parents, adopting American dress, language, and culture with relative ease. (adapt, conform)

autonomous

(adjective)

DEFINITION

1. existing as an independent entity (especially in government); 2. free from external constraint; 3. able to make free and independent decisions

SYNONYMS

independent, self-governing, self-sufficient, free, self-contained

ANTONYMS

controlled, governed, ruled, affiliated

USAGE EXAMPLES

Some people have expressed the opinion that Californiashould secede from the United Statesand become an autonomous government. (independent, self-governing)
I’m sorry, but you just don’t have the autonomy to make those kinds of decisions on your own; next time, check with me first. (freedom, independence)

banter

(noun, verb)

DEFINITION

(n.) playful, lighthearted, and usually witty, teasing; (v.) to tease or joke playfully and wittily

SYNONYMS

(n.) repartee, joking, teasing; (v.) tease, joke

ANTONYMS

criticize, flatter

USAGE EXAMPLES

He was known for his quick wit and clever banter. (joking, teasing)
The friends could banter for hours, always laughing, even at themselves. (joke, tease)

beckon

(verb)

DEFINITION

1. to motion or signal your hand or head in a way that tells someone to come nearer; 2. to attract people or draw people to you; 3. to increase the likelihood of something happening

SYNONYMS

wave, summon, nod, signal, attract, gesture, draw, pull, entice, allure

ANTONYMS

dismiss, send away, reject

USAGE EXAMPLES

John waved his hand and beckoned me to come into his office. (invited, summoned)
The promise of freedom and opportunity beckons people to the United States. (attracts, allures)

bestow

(verb)

DEFINITION

1. to give (something) as an honor or present; 2. to stow, pack, or store something (archaic use)

SYNONYMS

give, present, confer, grant, bequeath

ANTONYMS

take

USAGE EXAMPLES

He was bestowed an honorary degree from the University for delivering a commencement speech to the graduates. (awarded, granted)
The President will bestow him with the Freedom Award. (present)

cantankerous

(adjective)

DEFINITION

quarrelsome and ill-natured

SYNONYMS

cranky, bad-tempered, irritable, irascible, argumentative, belligerent, grouchy

ANTONYMS

good natured, cheerful, friendly

USAGE EXAMPLES

As a waiter, I had the unfortunate experience of serving many cantankerous customers. (irritable, ill-natured)
I was miserable at my old job because my boss was so cantankerous. (grouchy, argumentative)

caricature

(noun)

DEFINITION

1. an extreme description or exaggeration of someone or something done for comic effect; 2. creation of such comic representations

SYNONYMS

parody, cartoon, exaggeration, spoof, burlesque

ANTONYMS

USAGE EXAMPLES

His caricatures of popular political figures always added a bit of humor to the magazine. (spoofs, exaggerations)
Saturday Night Live often uses caricature to make fun of the people on the show as well as to parody well-known figures. (parody, burlesque)

civil

(adjective)

DEFINITION

1. having to do with citizens or the general population; 2. activities of citizens, as opposed to church or military; 3. polite and courteous, but restrained; 4. socially acceptable, civilized; 5. relating to civil law as opposed to criminal law

SYNONYMS

public, civic, civilian, cordial, respectful, polite

ANTONYMS

uncivilized, ill-mannered

USAGE EXAMPLES

She felt that her civil rights were violated when the police officer cursed at her. (civilian, public)
It is important to be civil even to those people who may not share your point of view. (cordial, mannerly)

cliche

(noun)

DEFINITION

1. a trite expression or phrase; 2. an overused idea or theme

SYNONYMS

platitude, bromide, truism, saying, banality

ANTONYMS

USAGE EXAMPLES

Try as he might, the groom found it difficult to write vows that were free of cliches used by so many couples before. (commonplaces, platitudes)
I know this is a total cliche, but it’s true: my wedding day was the happiest day of my life. (banality, common statement)

cogent

(adjective)

DEFINITION

convincing enough to compel belief or agreement–forceful and convincing

SYNONYMS

persuasive, convincing, compelling, coherent, trenchant, effective

ANTONYMS

unconvincing, ineffective

USAGE EXAMPLES

You will receive an “A" if you make a clear, cogent argument in your essay. (persuasive, compelling)
His cogent presentation led me to sign up for the complete seminar immediately. (convincing, compelling)

collusion

(noun)

DEFINITION

secret conspiracy between people or companies for illegal, deceitful, or fraudulent purposes

SYNONYMS

scheme, plot, scam, racket, conspiracy

ANTONYMS

USAGE EXAMPLES

The casino employees pulled off a major robbery in collusion with professional thieves. (scheme, plot)
Large corporations sometimes act in collusion to raise prices on a product, leaving disgruntled consumers few choices. (scam, plot)

compelling

(adjective)

DEFINITION

1. attracting interest and attention; 2. tending to drive or force something to happen

SYNONYMS

convincing, forceful, driving, dominant, commanding, imposing, interesting, exciting

ANTONYMS

unconvincing, weak

USAGE EXAMPLES

As compelling as your argument may seem, I’m not convinced it will prove persuasive. (convincing, commanding)
Everyone in the audience felt compelled to contribute to the actor’s charity organization. (induced, driven)

complementary

(adjective)

DEFINITION

1. completing something or making two things into one whole; 2. being complements of each other

SYNONYMS

integral, corresponding, parallel, interrelated, interdependent, matched, interconnected

ANTONYMS

unrelated

USAGE EXAMPLES

Wine experts used to say that red wine is complementary to steak and white wine to fish, but now many people agree it is an individual preference. (corresponding, matched)
The gospel choir consisted of many complementary voices. (matched, interdependent)

concert

(noun)

DEFINITION

1. agreement in purpose or action; 2. a group of people or things in agreement or harmony; 3. a musical performance

SYNONYMS

agreement, unity, accord, collaboration, cooperation

ANTONYMS

disagreement, discord

USAGE EXAMPLES

All the different divisions worked in concert to provide a seamless solution. (collaboration, accord)
It was a concerted effort which had everyone working in cooperation. (cooperative, harmonious, unified)

concerted

(adjective)

DEFINITION

1. planned or carried out by two or more people or groups working together for the same goal; 2. done in a serious and determined manner

SYNONYMS

agreeing, harmonious, unified, allied, cooperative

ANTONYMS

disjointed, uncooperative

USAGE EXAMPLES

Some concerted negotiations between the two companies could result in an agreement benefiting both sides. (cooperative)
In order for this project to succeed, it will take a concerted effort by everyone. (unified, cooperative, determined)

condemn

(verb)

DEFINITION

1. to criticize as wrong or immoral; 2. to assign guilt; 3. to determine unfit for public use; 4. to force someone or something into an undesirable circumstance

SYNONYMS

criticize, convict, sentence, doom, censure, denounce, expropriate, reprove, compel, force

ANTONYMS

laud, praise, acquit

USAGE EXAMPLES

Furious, the boss condemned his employees’ persistent handling of personal affairs on company time. (criticized, censured)
The criminal begged the court not to condemn him to prison, even though he admitted to lighting the condemned building on fire. (sentence, convict)

conducive

(adjective)

DEFINITION

tending to promote or encourage something to happen or exist–having the right conditions for something

SYNONYMS

favorable, contributive, leading, helpful, promotive, instrumental, expeditious

ANTONYMS

adverse, deleterious, hindering, unfavorable

USAGE EXAMPLES

Exercising before bedtime is not conducive to sound sleep. (instrumental, helpful)
The relaxed atmosphere at the office was conducive to high spirits and good morale. (promotive, contributive)

confer

(verb)

DEFINITION

1. to present to or bestow something onto somebody; 2. to have a conference or meeting

SYNONYMS

award, bestow, impart, grant, give, present, talk, discuss, deliberate

ANTONYMS

take

USAGE EXAMPLES

Executive management is prohibited from participating in any program that will confer financial benefit to a board member. (award, give)
Could I take a moment to confer your offer with my colleagues? (discuss, deliberate)

conjecture

(noun, verb)

DEFINITION

(n.) reasoning that involves the formation of conclusions from incomplete information–speculation; (v.) to form an opinion based on speculation or assumption

SYNONYMS

(n.) speculation, hypothesis, assumption, guess, (v.) speculate, presume, suppose

ANTONYMS

demonstrate, prove

USAGE EXAMPLES

The defense attorney was angered by the prosecutor’s commentary, which seemed to be pure conjecture. (speculation)
There has been quite a bit of conjecture as to whether or not the celebrity couple got married over the weekend. (speculation)

construct

(verb, noun)

DEFINITION

(v.) to make, build, or fabricate something; (n.) 1. something built or created; 2 an idea or theory devised from more simple concepts

SYNONYMS

(v.) build, make, create, form, compose, (n.) structure, concept, idea, theory

ANTONYMS

(v.) destroy

USAGE EXAMPLES

He doesn’t celebrate Valentine’s Day because he thinks it is simply a construct invented by the greeting card, chocolate, and flower companies. (something fabricated)
The city plans to construct a new road to replace the old, dilapidated road. (build)

contrive

(verb)

DEFINITION

1. to accomplish something by being clever and creative; 2. to make or invent something clever; 3. to create a plan or scheme

SYNONYMS

devise, concoct, formulate, design, invent, engineer, manipulate, scheme

ANTONYMS

chance, hazard, destroy

USAGE EXAMPLES

We should contrive a new plan of action, since the old one doesn’t seem to be working. (devise)
The Internet craze produced a slew of contrived dot-com businesses. (concocted)

credence

(noun)

DEFINITION

belief or acceptance that something is true

SYNONYMS

belief, faith, trust, acceptance

ANTONYMS

skepticism, disbelief, distrust

USAGE EXAMPLES

New evidence lends credence to his alibi. (belief, acceptance, trust)
Her bruises lent credence to her claim of spousal abuse. (belief, acceptance, trust)

curb

(verb, noun)

DEFINITION

(v.) to constrain or control ; (n.) imposed limit or restraint

SYNONYMS

(v.) restrict, limit, curtail, check, constrain, inhibit, (n.) restraint, limitation, restriction

ANTONYMS

(v.) goad, spur

USAGE EXAMPLES

I’m really looking forward to tonight’s concert, but since I have to get a lot of work done first, I will need to curb my enthusiasm. (restrain)
Economists predict that the latest rise in interest rates will be a curb on consumer spending. (check, limit)

curt

(adjective)

DEFINITION

spoken shortly and often rudely–terse

SYNONYMS

terse, abrupt, brusque, short, blunt, rude

ANTONYMS

gracious, lengthy

USAGE EXAMPLES

We all know he is a busy man, but he still didn’t need to be so curt with his secretary when she asked him a question. (terse, abrupt)
She gave only a curt nod in reply before rushing off. (short, brusque)

deduce

(verb)

DEFINITION

to come to a logical conclusion using reasoning on the basis of information; to reach an answer or a decision by carefully considering the known facts

SYNONYMS

infer, conclude, reason, assume, derive

ANTONYMS

guess

USAGE EXAMPLES

Can I deduce from your complaintive statements that you are unhappy at this job? (infer, conclude)
Using logical reasoning, Jack made a deduction as to who was the most likely person to be stealing money from the petty cash box. (inference, conclusion)

deem

(verb)

DEFINITION

to judge or consider something

SYNONYMS

regard, appraise, judge, consider, presume, suppose

ANTONYMS

disregard, misunderstand, doubt

USAGE EXAMPLES

If the doctors deem him unfit for surgery, they will not go forward with the procedure. (judge, consider)
We will change the rules only when we deem it to be necessary. (consider, regard)

dejected

(adjective)

DEFINITION

gloomy and lacking hope, especially because of disappointment

SYNONYMS

despairing, despondent, discouraged, crestfallen, depressed, disconsolate, doleful, downcast, morose, melancholy, miserable

ANTONYMS

exhilarated, cheery

USAGE EXAMPLES

Tim could tell by Anne’s dejected look that her parents had decided not to allow her to attend the prom. (miserable, despondent)
Don’t be so dejected; it’s a small problem, not the end of the world. (crestfallen)

demeanor

(noun)

DEFINITION

a person’s outward behavior, manner, or appearance, especially as it reflects on mood or character

SYNONYMS

behavior, attitude, conduct, disposition, deportment

ANTONYMS

temperament

USAGE EXAMPLES

His happy and optimistic demeanor put the employees at ease. (attitude, disposition)
We guessed that his lack of friends was due to his unfriendly demeanor. (behavior, conduct)

denote

(verb)

DEFINITION

1. to mean; 2. to designate or refer to; 3. to serve as a sign for

SYNONYMS

mean, signify, betoken, indicate, designate, express, imply, mark, show, typify, represent

ANTONYMS

USAGE EXAMPLES

The warm breeze denotes the coming of spring. (signifies, indicates)
Flares on the road denote danger ahead. (mean, indicate)

devise

(verb)

DEFINITION

to create, invent or creatively think up an idea or plan

SYNONYMS

plan, arrange, design, invent, dream up, concoct, plot, collude, conspire

ANTONYMS

USAGE EXAMPLES

Last night I devised a plan to help turn this company around. (created, invented)
My assistant is devising the agenda for our next board meeting. (creating)

disconcerted

(adjective)

DEFINITION

unsettled, confused, or uneasy

SYNONYMS

disturbed, uneasy, confused, unsettled, dismayed, uncertain, worried, anxious, flustered

ANTONYMS

composed, calm

USAGE EXAMPLES

The long bus trip and the odd behavior of the driver left many passengers feeling rather disconcerted. (uneasy)
The strange affair left me shaken and disconcerted. (unsettled, worried)

dismay

(verb, noun)

DEFINITION

(v.) to cause somebody to feel discouraged or disappointed; (n.) a feeling of hopelessness, disappointment, or discouragement

SYNONYMS

(v.) distress, disturb, worry, daunt, discourage, appall, disconcert, (n.) hopelessness, disappointment, discouragement, distress, dread, consternation

ANTONYMS

(v.) encourage; (n.) hope, happiness

USAGE EXAMPLES

The parents were dismayed when they learned that their child was struggling in school. (upset, worried, distressed)
The spectators were filled with dismay when their favorite player sustained an injury. (alarm, worry)

disposition

(noun)

DEFINITION

1. personality or temperament, including a person’s typical mood and attitude; 2. a natural tendency; 3. arrangement, organization, or control; 4. a settlement or resolution

SYNONYMS

personality, temperament, temper, character, settlement, nature, tendency, inclination, arrangement, control

ANTONYMS

USAGE EXAMPLES

Few things could upset Mary’s cheerful disposition. (character, personality, mood)
Harry has a well-known disposition for getting himself into trouble. (tendency, inclination)

egregious

(adjective)

DEFINITION

extremely and blatantly bad

SYNONYMS

blatant, flagrant, glaring, gross, rank, outrageous

ANTONYMS

good, great, nice, remarkable

USAGE EXAMPLES

It was an egregious error on his part. (unusually bad, flagrant)
That was an egregious oversight on his part and could cost our company millions. (unusually bad, blatant)

endeavor

(noun, verb)

DEFINITION

(n.) 1. a conscientious activity intended to accomplish something; 2. an effort made in an attempt to achieve something; (v.) to make an effort to achieve something

SYNONYMS

(n.) attempt, effort, enterprise, venture, (v.) try, strive, undertake

ANTONYMS

give up, quit, cease

USAGE EXAMPLES

I have no doubt that our new business endeavor will be a successful one. (venture, enterprise)
She endeavored to find a high-paying job right out of college, but the search was more difficult than she had anticipated. (tried, strove)

ensue

(verb)

DEFINITION

1. to follow after something; 2. to be a consequence of an earlier event

SYNONYMS

follow, result, develop, arise, occur

ANTONYMS

preface, antecede

USAGE EXAMPLES

This news could ensue in a huge increase in the price of our stock. (result)
After the jury read the verdict, cheering and shouting ensued in the courtroom. (followed, occurred)

enumerate

(verb)

DEFINITION

1. to individually list things one by one; 2. to count the number of things in something

SYNONYMS

specify, list, recite, recount, count, itemize, number, tally

ANTONYMS

USAGE EXAMPLES

The mechanic enumerated the list of things that were wrong with the car. (listed, cited)
After her boss enumerated the number of times she had been late for work that month, he warned her that the next time, she would be fired. (recounted, tallied)

envelop

(verb)

DEFINITION

to cover, enclose, or surround something completely

SYNONYMS

enfold, enclose, enshroud, enwrap, shroud, veil,

ANTONYMS

expose, unwrap, unveil

USAGE EXAMPLES

The mountain was enveloped in fog. (covered, enwrapped)
They had to envelop the house with a tarp in order to fumigate the house. (enwrap, cover)

expatriate

(verb, noun)

DEFINITION

(v.) 1. to banish or exile someone from a country; 2. to permanently leave one’s country; (n.) an expatriated person

SYNONYMS

(v.) exile, banish, deport, withdraw, emigrate, (n.) exile, outcast, emigrant, deportee, refugee

ANTONYMS

(v.) immigrate, (n.) immigrant

USAGE EXAMPLES

Hemingway was an American expatriate who wrote of his many interesting adventures in Europe. (one who lives outside his own country)
He was tired of the regulations and taxes exacted on businesses in France, so he decided to expatriate from France to the United States. (permanently move)

expound

(verb)

DEFINITION

to give a detailed description or answer

SYNONYMS

explain, interpret, expatiate, discuss, inform, opine

ANTONYMS

condense, abbreviate, abridge, confuse

USAGE EXAMPLES

Political news gets old really fast when you have to listen to pundits expound about the shortcomings of their opposing political party. (discuss in detail, explain)
The professor decided to expound on the underlying message of the book for the entire 50-minute lecture. (discuss, explain)

facet

(noun)

DEFINITION

1. an aspect of something; 2. any of the faces of a cut gemstone; 3. in anatomy, any smooth flat area on a hard surface such as a bone or a tooth

SYNONYMS

aspect, phase, component, factor, side, element

ANTONYMS

whole

USAGE EXAMPLES

This is a very complex issues with many different facets. (aspects, sides)
The consultants came in and learned every facet of our business before they made any recommendations. (aspect, element)

falter

(verb)

DEFINITION

1. to lose effectiveness, confidence, or ability; 2. to stumble; 3. to speak haltingly

SYNONYMS

stumble, waver, vacillate, hesitate, stammer

ANTONYMS

steady, persist, hold [strong]

USAGE EXAMPLES

Her voice faltered as she tried to confess through her tears. (wavered)
She was resolute, and nothing could cause her to falter from her commitment. (waver)

fervor

(noun)

DEFINITION

1. extreme intensity of emotion or belief; 2. intense heat

SYNONYMS

seriousness, passion, ardency, earnestness, animation, vehemence, intensity

ANTONYMS

apathy, impassiveness, indifference

USAGE EXAMPLES

The country was full of patriotic fervor during the war. (zeal, passion)
Rioters reached quite a fervor after embarking upon a hunger strike. (earnestness, vehemence)

foregoing

(adjective, noun)

DEFINITION

(adj.) coming or having been mentioned before, especially in speeches or writing; (n.) the thing that was mentioned before

SYNONYMS

(adj.) aforementioned, previous, former, prior, preceding

ANTONYMS

(adj.) following, later, after

USAGE EXAMPLES

The foregoing statements explained the plan; now we will discuss how to implement it. (aforementioned, previous, preceding)
We have examined the foregoing report and can attest to its validity. (aforementioned)

foremost

(adjective)

DEFINITION

1. the most important; 2. before all else

SYNONYMS

first, highest, leading, chief, principle, best, prominent, predominant

ANTONYMS

last, behind, unimportant

USAGE EXAMPLES

First and foremost, we will try to have fun, but our secondary goal is winning. (most important, most prominently)
Professor Jackson was the university’s foremost expert in the field of biology. (prominent, best)

garnish

(noun, verb)

DEFINITION

(n.) 1. a decoration; (v.) 1. to decorate or add something to food to enhance its appearance or taste; 2. to take a debtor’s wages on legal orders

SYNONYMS

(n.) decoration, adornment, embellishment, enhancer, ornament, (v.) decorate, enhance, adorn, beautify

ANTONYMS

USAGE EXAMPLES

Food served at diners often comes with a garnish of parsley. (decoration)
She likes to garnish her food with edible flowers. (decorate, adorn)

germinate

(verb)

DEFINITION

1. to start growing from a seed; 2. to create and begin the process of development

SYNONYMS

grow, sprout, root, plant, develop, evolve, create

ANTONYMS

die

USAGE EXAMPLES

Once the new CEO’s ideas began to germinate, the company quickly turned around. (take root, develop)
The idea germinated in my mind this morning and became a full blown epiphany by lunch. (developed, sprouted, grew)

gesticulate

(verb)

DEFINITION

to gesture or explain something using the hands, typically while speaking

SYNONYMS

gesture, signal, sign, motion, pantomime

ANTONYMS

be still

USAGE EXAMPLES

As a conference speaker, he often gesticulates while he speaks in order to increase enthusiasm and keep his audience’s attention. (gestures)
Because she was excited about the trip, she gesticulated wildly while telling us every detail with great animation. (gestured, motioned)

gravitas

(noun)

DEFINITION

seriousness in behavior, demeanor, and attitude

SYNONYMS

seriousness, formality, solemnity, gravity

ANTONYMS

lightheartedness, levity

USAGE EXAMPLES

The CEO was known for his gravitas and very few people joked with him at the office. (seriousness, professionalism)
Companies in the 21st century are more casual and have less office gravitas. (formality)

harness

(verb)

DEFINITION

1. to control and direct something for a purpose; 2. to keep something in check; 3. to put a harness (straps) on an animal

SYNONYMS

tame, control, reign in, subdue, suppress, restrain, yoke, hitch

ANTONYMS

USAGE EXAMPLES

You’ve got to find a way to harness your temper, because you can’t go flying off the handle in meetings the way you have been. (control, suppress)
We harnessed our joint resources to create a truly innovative product. (reigned in)

haste

(noun)

DEFINITION

1. great speed, especially in times of urgency; 2. excessive speed, leading to careless errors

SYNONYMS

hurry, hustle, speed, rush

ANTONYMS

leisure

USAGE EXAMPLES

I sent the proposal to him in haste and forgot to spell-check it before it went out. (great speed)
Despite packing with haste, I still didn’t get ready in time. (great speed)

helm

(noun, verb)

DEFINITION

(n.) a position of control and leadership; (v.) to be in charge or in control of something

SYNONYMS

(n.) front, lead, controller, commander, captain, chairman, master, guide, instructor, (v.) control, guide, lead, steer, commandeer

ANTONYMS

(n.) follower, lackey, (v.) follow

USAGE EXAMPLES

The new executive will take the helm next week. (position of leader)
He did a lot to foster the company’s success while at the helm. (front, position of leader)

impart

(verb)

DEFINITION

1. to communicate something to someone; 2. to give something a particular quality, feeling, or taste.

SYNONYMS

communicate, disclose, divulge, convey, pass on, transmit, give, confer

ANTONYMS

take

USAGE EXAMPLES

I don’t think I can impart much wisdom on this subject. (share, communicate)
If you could, please impart on the team some of what you learned at the conference. (share, communicate, pass on)

incentive

(noun)

DEFINITION

something that encourages action

SYNONYMS

inducement, enticement, instigation, stimulus, motivation, impetus, encouragement, inspiration

ANTONYMS

USAGE EXAMPLES

The promise of a promotion and raise gave her the incentive she needed to bring in more sales. (stimulus, motive)
Newly single, he suddenly had incentive to begin a self-improvement program. (motive, inspiration)

incipient

(adjective)

DEFINITION

in the beginning of development or formation

SYNONYMS

nascent, initial, beginning, inchoate, budding

ANTONYMS

developed, finished

USAGE EXAMPLES

His ideas were still incipient and vague; he needed to develop them more thoroughly. (initial, inchoate)
With the economy showing incipient signs of recovery, consumers are regaining their confidence in the stock market. (initial, beginning)

induce

(verb)

DEFINITION

1. to cause or produce; 2. to influence or persuade; 3. to reason and make a statement based on observation and fact

SYNONYMS

persuade, influence, move, impel, cause, produce, stimulate, incite

ANTONYMS

repress, hinder, prevent

USAGE EXAMPLES

If you weren’t already planning to enter the contest, the prize money is sure to induce you. (persuade)
He is a true hero; whenever he sees injustice, he is induced to action. (impelled, moved)

inordinate

(adjective)

DEFINITION

more than what is considered a normal amount

SYNONYMS

excessive, immoderate, extreme, disproportionate, outrageous, superfluous

ANTONYMS

insufficient, meager, moderate, reasonable

USAGE EXAMPLES

Because she was excited about the prom, she spent an inordinate amount of time picking out a dress. (excessive)
The flight was delayed, so we spent an inordinate amount of time at airport gift shops. (outrageous)

intricate

(adjective)

DEFINITION

1. highly involved or complex; 2. made up of many different parts

SYNONYMS

complex, involved, tricky, convoluted, complicated, elaborate, entangled

ANTONYMS

easy, simple

USAGE EXAMPLES

The plan was so intricate, I was sure there was an easier way to complete the project. (complex, convoluted, involved)
We can’t let him go because he is the only person who understands all the intricacies of the project. (complexities, difficulties)

irate

(adjective)

DEFINITION

very angry

SYNONYMS

angry, enraged, mad, furious, fuming, heated, annoyed

ANTONYMS

calm, kind, pleased

USAGE EXAMPLES

Her boss became irate when she cost the company its biggest client. (furious)
His irate neighbors yelled at him for throwing such a loud party. (angry, fuming)

loath

(adjective)

DEFINITION

unwilling, averse, or reluctant to do something

SYNONYMS

unwilling, disinclined, averse, hesitant, reluctant

ANTONYMS

willing, inclined

USAGE EXAMPLES

He is loath to admit it, but he is not happy at his current job. (unwilling, reluctant)
One of the problems that people have with the President is that he is loath to admit when he has made a mistake. (unwilling, averse)

machiavellian

(adjective)

DEFINITION

using clever trickery, immoral methods, and expediency to achieve a desired goal, especially in politics

SYNONYMS

cunning, sly, tricky, crafty, shrewd, unscrupulous

ANTONYMS

trustworthy, honest, sincere

USAGE EXAMPLES

The VP of Marketing, known for his Machiavellian maneuvers, has long been plotting his scheme to oust the company CEO. (cunning, crafty)
The Governor’s well-crafted speech was a Machiavellian attempt at diminishing his poor reputation among the public. (shrewd)

magnitude

(noun)

DEFINITION

1. large extent, size, or quantity; 2. the significance, importance, or quality of something

SYNONYMS

scope, dimension, extent, size, significance, importance

ANTONYMS

insignificance

USAGE EXAMPLES

Despite repeated warnings by others, they did not realize the magnitude of the problem until it was too late. (significance, extent)
It will be difficult to estimate the magnitude of the discovery without further experimentation. (importance, significance)

malicious

(adjective)

DEFINITION

1. wishing to hurt others; 2. committing an act that will hurt others

SYNONYMS

hateful, spiteful, mean, wicked, depraved

ANTONYMS

benevolent, kind, caring

USAGE EXAMPLES

His malicious slandering of his co-worker was unprofessional and unseemly. (hurtful, meaning to cause harm)
I don’t think it was an accident; I think it was a malicious act intended to hurt him. (hurtful, meaning to cause harm)

malignant

(adjective)

DEFINITION

1. evil; 2. life-threatening

SYNONYMS

evil, hateful, spiteful, wicked, nasty, injurious, harmful

ANTONYMS

benign, kind, caring

USAGE EXAMPLES

The biopsy showed that the tumor was not malignant and was indeed benign. (life-threatening, injurious)
The dictator was an evil and malignant leader. (evil, wicked)

mediate

(verb, adjective)

DEFINITION

(v.) 1. to be in a middle position between two others; 2. to attempt to resolve a dispute by acting as a middle man and working with all parties; (adj.) 1. being in the middle; 2. to be neither at the beginning, nor at the end

SYNONYMS

(v.) intercede, arbitrate, interfere, moderate, negotiate, resolve, interpose

ANTONYMS

(v.) contend, fight, dispute, judge

USAGE EXAMPLES

An independent committee will help mediate the labor dispute. (arbitrate, resolve, negotiate)
Jill was sent in to mediate the negotiations and make sure that both sides were happy with the outcome. (arbitrate, moderate)

mitigate

(verb)

DEFINITION

1. to make something less harsh, severe, or violent; 2. to make an offense or crime less serious or more excusable

SYNONYMS

relieve, lessen, assuage, ease, excuse, soften, extenuate

ANTONYMS

intensify, aggravate, augment

USAGE EXAMPLES

The physician group paid more for insurance to mitigate their malpractice liability. (lessen, ease)
The company required all employees to sign a policy form on sexual harassment in order to mitigate its liability in future harassment cases. (assuage, lessen)

novel

(adjective)

DEFINITION

new and original

SYNONYMS

new, original, innovative, unprecedented, unusual

ANTONYMS

old, outdated, antiquated, obsolete

USAGE EXAMPLES

His novel ideas helped turn the company in a new, more successful direction. (new, original)
He came up with a novel solution that was the first of its kind. (new, unprecedented)

onus

(noun)

DEFINITION

1. burden, duty, or responsibility; 2. the blame for something; 3. burden of proof

SYNONYMS

burden, responsibility, load, obligation, duty, blame, stigma

ANTONYMS

acclaim, commendation

USAGE EXAMPLES

When the economy is in a recession, many believe the onus is on the President and Congress to pull the country out of it. (burden, obligation)
He’ll always bear the onus of having made bad investment decisions and losing most of the family’s retirement savings. (blame, responsibility)

opportune

(adjective)

DEFINITION

suitable for a purpose or occurring at the right time

SYNONYMS

appropriate, fitting, apt, auspicious, fortuitous, timely, fortunate

ANTONYMS

inopportune

USAGE EXAMPLES

The family dinner was an opportune time for the young couple to announce their engagement. (appropriate)
Our morning meeting will provide an opportune time to discuss our strategic plan. (convenient, apt)

opulent

(adjective)

DEFINITION

1. a lavish display of wealth or affluence; 2. abundant and plentiful

SYNONYMS

wealthy, lavish, expensive, luxurious, abundant, plentiful, lavish, bountiful

ANTONYMS

modest, meager

USAGE EXAMPLES

He lived an opulent lifestyle that was truly worthy of the show “Lifestyles of the Rich and Famous." (lavish, luxurious)
It was an opulent hotel with fine antique furniture, expensive paintings, and lavish decor throughout. (rich, expensive)

overt

(adjective)

DEFINITION

open to view, not hidden

SYNONYMS

open, apparent, obvious, unconcealed, clear, evident, manifest, palpable

ANTONYMS

hidden, concealed, covert

USAGE EXAMPLES

Although he didn’t criticize me overtly, I could tell that he wasn’t happy with my job performance. (obviously, openly)
In an overt show of support, the President met publicly with the candidate he hoped would succeed him. (unconcealed, clear)

placid

(adjective)

DEFINITION

1. completely free of interruption and disturbance–calm; 2. easily satisfied

SYNONYMS

serene, calm, peaceful, tranquil, imperturbable, even-tempered, composed, halcyon

ANTONYMS

frenzied, turbulent, rough, excited, disturbed

USAGE EXAMPLES

The placid sea and the approaching storm clouds appeared to be the calm before the storm. (calm)
Her placid manner often made people think she never got angry. (even-tempered)

preclude

(verb)

DEFINITION

to prevent something from happening, especially by action

SYNONYMS

inhibit, cease, discontinue, restrain, impede, interrupt, prevent, prohibit, ban

ANTONYMS

allow, permit

USAGE EXAMPLES

Her warning will not preclude him from making the trip. (prevent)
At the meeting, the executives discussed ways to preclude unnecessary lawsuits. (prevent)

preface

(noun, verb)

DEFINITION

(n.) an introduction at the beginning of a book; (v.) to begin with a preface or introduction before presenting your main point

SYNONYMS

(n.) introduction, foreword, prologue, (v.) introduce, begin, open

ANTONYMS

(n.) epilogue, postscript, addendum, closing, conclusion, (v.) close, conclude

USAGE EXAMPLES

I love his books because they are immediately engaging, right from the preface. (introduction, prologue)
The world hopes that talks in the Middle East will be a preface to peace. (introduction, beginning, prologue)

pretext

(noun)

DEFINITION

a made up excuse used to hide the truth

SYNONYMS

excuse, alibi, mask, cover

ANTONYMS

USAGE EXAMPLES

I called her on the pretext that I lost our homework assignment, but really I just wanted an excuse to talk to her. (cover, excuse)
He went over to visit her on the pretext that he just happened to be in the neighborhood, but everyone knows he has a crush on her. (alibi, excuse)

profusion

(noun)

DEFINITION

1. a lavish or extravagant amount; 2. large quantity of something

SYNONYMS

abundance, extravagance, lavishness, excess, bounty, plenty, wealth

ANTONYMS

sparseness, lack, shortage

USAGE EXAMPLES

This spring the flowers bloomed in greater profusion than in past years. (abundance)
Relieved and happy, she offered profuse thanks to the man who saved her life. (lavish, overflowing, excessive, effusive)

prognosis

(noun)

DEFINITION

1. a medical opinion as to the likely outcome of a disease or the chances of getting better; 2. prediction of future outcomes

SYNONYMS

prediction, cast, forecast, foretelling, prevision

ANTONYMS

USAGE EXAMPLES

Well, the economic prognosis is looking good, according to leading economists. (prediction, judgment, forecast)
The doctor’s prognosis is that Dad will recover from the surgery and be back to normal within a couple weeks. (prediction, assessment)

pseudo

(adjective)

DEFINITION

not authentic–false, untrue, not real, pretend

SYNONYMS

false, fake, phony, bogus, mock, pretend

ANTONYMS

authentic, real, true, genuine

USAGE EXAMPLES

Many of today’s celebrities are pseudo activists who don’t put much time or money behind their “causes." (mock, fake)
It’s funny to listen to the pseudo intellectuals who hang out at the cafe and pontificate about politics and philosophy. (fake, phony)

rash

(adjective, noun)

DEFINITION

(adj.) thoughtless or rushed action without consideration of consequences; (n.) a series of occurrences, usually unexpected and unpleasant

SYNONYMS

(adj.) thoughtless, hasty, impetuous, reckless, ill-considered, imprudent, careless, brash, impulsive, (n.) outbreak

ANTONYMS

(adj.) cautious, thoughtful, responsible

USAGE EXAMPLES

I regretted taking such rash action once I came to my senses. (thoughtless, hasty, imprudent)
Even though we thought his decision to quit his job was rather rash, we still felt sorry for him when he had trouble finding another position. (ill-considered, imprudent)

remit

(verb)

DEFINITION

1. to send or dispatch a payment; 2. to cancel or hold back from enforcing something; 3. to reduce the intensity of something (for instance, pain); 4. to restore something; 5. to refer a case to another court (in law); 6. to restore something to its original condition

SYNONYMS

pay, repay, reimburse, send, dispatch, reduce, restore, postpone, defer, refer, revoke, nullify, invalidate

ANTONYMS

intensify, increase, persist, continue

USAGE EXAMPLES

In order to avoid any interest charges, please remit your payment by the end of the week. (send, dispatch, pay)
She remitted the fines because the payment came earlier than expected. (reduced)

reticent

(adjective)

DEFINITION

1. unwilling or disinclined to talk; 2. reluctant to draw attention to oneself; 3. cool and formal in manner–reserved

SYNONYMS

silent, hesitant, shy, reserved, restrained, taciturn, reluctant

ANTONYMS

frank, unreserved

USAGE EXAMPLES

I thought he was unusually reticent when we were discussing the missing office supplies. (silent, reserved)
Most people are reticent about opening up to a new boss. (shy, hesitant)

revere

(verb)

DEFINITION

to treat or regard somebody with admiration and deep respect

SYNONYMS

admire, esteem, regard, respect, venerate

ANTONYMS

disrespect, disdain, contemn

USAGE EXAMPLES

I revere doctors who donate their time and resources to help those who cannot afford medical care. (admire, respect)
The once-revered CEO lost the respect of his employees when he admitted to embezzling funds for his own profit. (admired, respected)

simulate

(verb)

DEFINITION

1. to reproduce or create a model of something; 2. to mimic looks or behavior; 3. to pretend

SYNONYMS

imitate, copy, model, represent, duplicate, mimic, re-create, pretend, fake, feign

ANTONYMS

USAGE EXAMPLES

The pilot simulated a maneuver he had learned in flight school the week before. (imitated, re-created)
There are several flight simulator games that simulate the experience of flying. (mimic, re-create)

solemn

(adjective)

DEFINITION

1. marked by gravity, dignity, and earnest sincerity; 2. characterized by ceremony or formality; 3. inspiring awe or reverence

SYNONYMS

heavy, intense, earnest, serious, grave, sober, somber, awe-inspiring, imposing, venerable, dignified, ceremonial, sedate, staid, sacred

ANTONYMS

relaxed, bright, cheerful, informal, frivolous, rejoicing

USAGE EXAMPLES

The fallen soldiers were honored in a solemn ceremony. (serious, heavy, somber)
After he lost a significant amount of money in Las Vegas, Bob made a solemn promise to his wife never to gamble again. (serious, earnest)

spawn

(verb, noun)

DEFINITION

(v.) to give birth or to cause something new to grow; (n.) 1. eggs of fish or amphibians, usually produced in large quantities; 2. offspring, especially when numerous

SYNONYMS

(v.) generate, produce, initiate, (n.) eggs, seed, offspring

ANTONYMS

(v.) kill, destroy, exterminate, eradicate

USAGE EXAMPLES

Male seahorses are very unique in that they keep their spawn in a special pouch in their abdomens. (eggs)
Fewer government regulation coupled with increased freedoms should spawn new start-up companies throughout India. (create, initiate, give birth to)

staunch

(adjective)

DEFINITION

steadfast in loyalty or principle

SYNONYMS

firm, constant, stable, dependable, faithful, resolute

ANTONYMS

shaky, unsteady

USAGE EXAMPLES

The actor is a staunch supporter of environmental protection programs. (firm)
My wife has always been a staunch Democrat, so she surprised me when she voted for a Republican. (faithful, resolute)

sycophant

(noun)

DEFINITION

a person who overly flatters someone in authority for personal gain

SYNONYMS

bootlicker, brown-noser, flatterer, lackey, lap-dog, yes-man

ANTONYMS

authority, boss

USAGE EXAMPLES

He was a sycophant who constantly complimented the boss and brought him donuts every morning. (bootlicker, brown-noser, doormat)
The boss expected his employees to act like sycophants by answering his every beck-and-call. (slaves, lap-dogs, yes-men)

tantamount

(adjective)

DEFINITION

equivalent to a particular thing in effect, outcome, or value–the same as

SYNONYMS

equal, equivalent, identical, parallel, synonymous

ANTONYMS

opposite, unlike

USAGE EXAMPLES

The way the executives pulled money from the company to pay for their bonuses was tantamount to stealing, in the employees’ minds. (equivalent)
Many felt the questionable accounting practices of the company were tantamount to corporate fraud. (equal)

tenable

(adjective)

DEFINITION

reasonable and rational, especially when factual evidence supports a claim

SYNONYMS

reasonable, believable, credible, justifiable, plausible, rational

ANTONYMS

unbelievable, unreasonable, irrational

USAGE EXAMPLES

Her statement that gas-guzzling cars do not affect the environment is not very tenable. (reasonable, rational, believable)
Most of Albert Einstein’s theories have proven tenable over time. (plausible, believable, rational)

tenor

(noun)

DEFINITION

1. the direction in which something is consistently moving; 2. the general sense or meaning of something written or spoken; 3. the exact meaning or wording of a legal document; 4. the highest natural voice of an adult male or a singer with this voice

SYNONYMS

course, progression, movement, pattern, direction, meaning, significance, sense, tone

ANTONYMS

USAGE EXAMPLES

What was the tenor of the President’s speech? Is he moving away from the issue or pressing forward. (direction, pattern, character)
All of a sudden the tenor of the meeting changed and a contentious argument ensued. (usual pattern, character)

tumultuous

(adjective)

DEFINITION

1. full of noise, confusion, and disorder; 2. characterized by change and uncertainty

SYNONYMS

clamorous, riotous, turbulent, uproarious, disorderly, troubled, disruptive, wild

ANTONYMS

restrained, calm, peaceful

USAGE EXAMPLES

The opposing demonstrators became tumultuous when leaders began screaming at one another. (riotous, disorderly)
The sixties were a time of tumultuous social upheaval. (turbulent)

vet

(verb)

DEFINITION

examine something or someone carefully to make certain that they are acceptable or suitable

SYNONYMS

scrutinize, examine, inspect

ANTONYMS

USAGE EXAMPLES

The bank thoroughly vets all loan applicants before issuing a loan. (examines, investigates)
The anchorman neglected to vet his sources and ended up running a bogus story that tarnished the image of the entire network. (inspect, scrutinize)

 

廣告

About leeoxygen

吱吱喳喳,嚕嚕啦啦,嗯嗯啊啊.
本篇發表於 GRE與托福學術英文字彙精進 並標籤為 , , , , , , , 。將永久鏈結加入書籤。

8 Responses to TOP 100 TOEFL Vocabulary Words

  1. Hey there, You have done an excellent job.
    I will definitely digg it and personally recommend to my friends.
    I am confident they’ll be benefited from this web site.

  2. It’s really a nice and useful piece of information. I am happy that you simply shared this useful info with us. Please keep us up to date like this. Thanks for sharing.

  3. I constantly spent my half an hour to read this weblog’s posts daily along with a mug of coffee.

  4. I am really enjoying the theme/design of your blog.
    Do you ever run into any browser compatibility problems?
    A few of my blog audience have complained about
    my website not working correctly in Explorer but looks great in Opera.
    Do you have any recommendations to help fix this problem?

  5. anchor 說道:

    You can also easily utilize the Debt Consolidation Calculator calculator.
    If you’ve been thinking about purchasing a new vehicle from a dealership. Perhaps it’s because they don’t realize how much you can afford the offers.

  6. Hello, i think that i saw you visited my site so i came to “return
    the favor”.I am trying to find things to improve my
    website!I suppose its ok to use some of your ideas!
    !

  7. All my guitars on Feeding the Wolves are his pickups because he hand-wires all of
    them. Adam Lambert and Boyfriend Sauli Koskinen Arrested in
    a Helsinski Gay Bar, Finland (Pictures). Celebrity gossip
    writer Perez Hilton has posted an uncensored photograph of
    Miley Cyrus flashing herself.

  8. MarketPulse is a forex, commodities, and world indices evaluation, and international exchange data website offering well timed and correct information on main financial developments, technical evaluation, and worldwide events that impression completely different asset lessons and buyers. If the required info is not supplied, the College won’t contemplate the reentry request. For this reason, changes in autonomic nerve operate can significantly affect reentry mechanisms, both precipitating or terminating reentry.

發表迴響

在下方填入你的資料或按右方圖示以社群網站登入:

WordPress.com Logo

您的留言將使用 WordPress.com 帳號。 登出 / 變更 )

Twitter picture

您的留言將使用 Twitter 帳號。 登出 / 變更 )

Facebook照片

您的留言將使用 Facebook 帳號。 登出 / 變更 )

Google+ photo

您的留言將使用 Google+ 帳號。 登出 / 變更 )

連結到 %s