[生字筆記]2011.06.11

[A部分]

  1. act on (phr.)對…起作用;按照…行事

These medical herbs are said to act on the heart. 據說這些藥草對心臟起作用。

Acting on my recommendation, he has decided to read the novel once more.

按照我的勸告, 他決定把這本小說再讀一遍。

 

  1. avuncular (adj.)像叔伯的;慈祥的;伯父的; 叔父的

Etymology: from Latin avunculus (maternal) uncle, diminutive of avus grandfather

An avuncular man or a man with avuncular behaviour is friendly and helpful towards someone younger. (FORMAL)

 

He began to talk in his most gentle and avuncular manner.

His avuncular image belies his steely determination.

 

  1. a priori (phr.) /’e praɪ’ɔraɪ/

1 a DEDUCTIVE b relating to or derived by reasoning from self-evident propositions

2 a being without examination or analysis PRESUMPTIVE


“It’s freezing outside, you must be cold" is an example of a priori reasoning.

One assumes, a priori, that a parent would be better at dealing with problems.

There’s no a priori reason to think your expenses will remain the same in a new city.

There is no a priori hypothesis to work with.

  1. a posteriori (phr.) 1 INDUCTIVE  2 relating to or derived by reasoning from observed facts

an a posteriori argument that derives the theory from the evidence


  1. a fortiori (phr.) with greater reason or more convincing force更加;更不必說了

<the man of prejudice is, a fortiori, a man of limited mental vision>

 

If Britain cannot afford a space programme, then, a fortiori, neither can India.

If you are wrong then, a fortiori, so am I.

Frank can’t run to the store in less than five minutes, and the restaurant is several blocks further away than the store. Thus, a fortiori, Frank can’t run to the restaurant in less than five minutes.

 

  1. aficionado (n.) a person who likes, knows about, and appreciates a usually fervently pursued interest or activity DEVOTEE <aficionados of the bullfight> <movie aficionados> 狂熱愛好者

 

[B部分]

  1. by the same token 由於同樣的原因;同樣地for the same reason

I don’t think that prices will go up but, by the same token, I don’t see them going down either.

The penalty for failure will be high. But, by the same token, the rewards for success will be great.

失敗就要付出沉重的代價,同樣,成功就會獲得很大的回報。

 

  1. by all accounts (phr.)據說; 根據報導;根據各種流傳的說法

By all accounts he is going to resign. 據說,他將辭職。

I’ve never been there but it is, by all accounts, a lovely place.

我從來沒去過那個地方, 人家都說那地方很好。

 

  1. brash (adj.)盛氣凌人的;自以為是的impertinent; impudent; tactless; hasty; rash; impetuous.

Beneath his brash exterior, he’s still a little boy inside.

他外表盛氣凌人,內心裏還是個孩子。

brash young man.

On stage she seems hard, brash and uncompromising.

 

  1. brink (n.)邊, 邊緣threshold  verge

He brought the country to the brink of war.

他把國家帶到了戰爭邊緣。

The tree grew on the brink of the cliff.

那棵樹長在懸崖邊緣。

Scientists are on the brink of making a major new discovery.

科學家很快就會有新的重大發現。

He’s pulled the company back from the brink (= he has saved it from disaster).

他使公司起死回生。

the brink of the precipice 懸崖邊緣

 

[D部分]

  1. disenfranchise剝奪…的公民權

a disenfranchised group/minority 被剝奪了選舉權的群體/少數派

 

餵豬、拉豬、洗豬舍,這些都是一般養豬戶常見的農事,不過眼前這個大談養豬經的年輕人不是尋常豬農,而是台灣最知名的客籍音樂創作人林生祥。林生祥曾是廣受好評、有「農民麥克風」之稱的「交工樂隊」團長,他的音樂曲風多變,融合傳統樂器客家山歌八音、民謠,以及西方的搖滾樂、甚至日本沖繩三弦音樂的文化元素;詞曲內容則以故鄉高雄縣美濃鎮為背景,多年來始終堅持為弱勢的農民和勞工發聲。

 

Feeding and catching pigs and cleaning their pens (豬圈) are common chores, but the young man tending to the pigs here is no ordinary farmer. He’s Taiwan’s most famous Hakka musician, Lin Sheng-xiang. He was once the leader of Labor Exchange, the acclaimed band known as “the farmers’ mouthpiece (喉舌;代言人)." His music covers many styles, blending together traditional instrumentsHakka mountain songs and “eight-sound" music, folk, Western-style rock, and even Okinawan sanshin. His lyrics take as their backdrop life in Meinung, Kaohsiung County. He’s been speaking out on behalf of disenfranchised farmers and laborers for years.

 

  1. disdainful (adj.)輕視的;鄙視的;驕傲的Showing scorn and disrespect toward

She’s always been disdainful of people who haven’t been to college.

她總是瞧不起那些未唸過大學的人。

She was most disdainful of our efforts to enter the cosmetics market.

university professors who are disdainful of popular entertainment

He is highly disdainful of anything to do with the literary establishment.

(= scornful, contemptuous)

 

  1. drab (adj.)單調的; 無趣的; 無生氣Lacking liveliness, charm, or surprise

a cold drab little office 冷冰冰的小辦公室

drab women, dressed in browns and greys 身着棕灰二色衣服毫無光彩的女人

She wore drab clothes and no make-up.

She walked through the city centre with its drab, grey buildings and felt depressed.

I feel so drab in this grey uniform.

 

[E部分]

  1. 靈芝是野生菌類的一種,但它幾乎可說是中國人最重視、珍愛的一種植物。自古至今,中國人一直把它視作吉慶祥瑞的象徵,也被認作是可致長生不老的仙草。

Ling chih is a wild fungus, which since time immemorial, has been regarded as a good omen, and even an elixir (長生不老藥) among the Chinese people.

 

[F部分]

  1. fetch (v.)(去)拿來;(去)請來

The inhabitants have to walk a mile to fetch water. 居民得走一英里路去取水。

She’s gone to fetch the kids from school. 她去學校接孩子了。

Could you fetch me my bag? 你能幫我去取我的包嗎?

to fetch help / a doctor 去請人幫助;去請醫生

 

  1. fend off (phr.)擋開; 避開

The politician fended off the question. 那位政治家避開了這個問題。

The minister had to fend off some awkward questions from reporters.

部長需避開記者提出的某些尷尬的問題。

He tried to kiss her but she fended him off. 他想吻她,但她把他擋開了。

She uses her secretary to fend off unwanted phone calls.

 

[I部分]

  1. ingratiate (v.)使得到…歡心; 迎合;討好;巴結

The first part of his plan was to ingratiate himself with the members of the committee.

他的計劃的第一步是拉攏委員會的成員。

His policy is to ingratiate himself with anyone who might be useful to him.

She quickly sought to ingratiate herself with the new administration.

 

  1. impart (v.) 1:分給; 給予; 傳授 2:告知; 透露to communicate information to someone (FORMAL)

impart knowledge to students 向學生傳授知識

The red curtains impart a certain elegance to the room.

紅色的窗簾使房間平添幾分雅緻。

The spice imparts an Eastern flavour to the dish.

這種調味品給菜肴添加了一種東方風味。

He had no news to impart.

他沒有什麼消息可透露。

She had information that she couldn’t wait to impart.

I was rather quiet as I didn’t feel I had much wisdom to impart on the subject.

 

[M部分]

  1. mise-en-scène (n.)舞臺佈置;(戲劇的)演出;導演;周圍的狀況;背景

(a)    the arrangement of properties, scenery, etc., in a play

(b)   the objects so arranged; stage setting

 

[O部分]

  1. on a par with 與…同等重要(或同水平等)  to be at the same level or standard

As a writer she was on a par with the great novelists. 她是與偉大小說家齊名的作家。

This violinist may be an amateur but he’s on a par with professional orchestral players.

With their win today, the Rangers are now on a par with the Orioles in the team rankings.

The pity was that her gratitude put her, in the law’s eyes and the world’s, on a par with her abominable husband.

 

Parts of Glasgow are on a par with the worst areas of London and Liverpool for burglaries.

The regeneration of the city’s downtown dock front will put it on a par with Nice or Cannes.

The wages of clerks were on a par with those of manual workers.

We will have Christmas decorations on a par with anything on show at the MetroCentre.

Profits should be on a par with last year.

The gains and the losses are on a par.

 

  1. occasion (v.)使發生;造成;導致To occasion something means to cause it. (FORMAL)

The flight delay was occasioned by the need for a further security check.

這次航班的延誤是由於必須做進一步的安全檢查。

The decision occasioned us much anxiety.

這個決定讓我們憂慮不堪。

He argued that the release of hostages should not occasion a change in policy.

Her refusal occasioned a lot of trouble.

The authorities were occasioned a lot of worry by the case.

 

[P部分]

  1. perimeter (1)外緣;邊緣 (2)周長

Guards patrol the perimeter of the estate.

保安人員在莊園四周巡邏。

 

[R部分]

  1. reminiscence (n.) 1:回憶;追憶 2:懷舊的談話;回憶錄

The book is a collection of his reminiscences about the actress.

這本書輯錄了他對那位女演員的回憶。

The novel contains endless reminiscences of/about the author’s youth.

My grandfather used to reminisce about his years in the navy.

That song is so reminiscent of my adolescence.

 

[S部分]

  1. sanction (v.) (1)認可;批准 (2)贊許;支持;鼓勵 (3)國際制裁

Official sanction has not yet been given. 尚未獲得正式批准。

The church would not sanction his second marriage. 教會不會認可他的第二次婚姻。

There is no sanction for autocracy. 沒有人贊成獨裁統治。

They refused to sanction segregation. 他們拒絕支持種族隔離。

The UN imposed economic sanctions against Iraq. 聯合國對伊拉克實施經濟制裁。

 

  1. sublime /sə’blaɪm/

(n.) something that is extremely good or beautiful

崇高的事物;壯麗的景象;絕妙的東西

He transforms the most ordinary subject into the sublime.

經他一點化,極普通的題材也能變得令人叫絕。

Her dancing approached the sublime.

The works on display range from the mainstream to the sublime.

the realm of things that are sublime: the sublime in art.

She elevated every rare small success to the sublime.

 

Idiom: from the sublime to the ridiculous

used to describe a situation in which something serious, important or of high quality is followed by something silly, unimportant or of poor quality

從高超到荒謬;從高妙到低俗

 

(adj.) extremely good or beautiful:

(1)崇高的;壯麗的;宏偉的;令人讚歎的

sublime beauty 令人讚歎的美

a sublime combination of flavours 搭配巧妙的幾種味道

The location of the hotel is sublime. 旅館的位置極好。

The architecture of the cathedral was truly sublime.

 

elevated or lofty in thought, language, etc.: Paradise Lost is sublime poetry.

impressing the mind with a sense of grandeur or power; inspiring awe, veneration, etc.: Switzerland has sublime scenery.

supreme or outstanding: a sublime dinner.

complete; absolute; utter: sublime stupidity.

Sublime music filled the air.

 

[only before noun] FORMAL used for describing a feeling or quality that is extreme:

His face assumed an expression of sublime conceit.

Her songs are a sublime fusion of pop and Brazilian music.

The book contains sublime descriptive passages.

Sublime music floats on a scented summer breeze to the spot where you lie.

 

(2)(人的行為或態度)極端的;極端而盲目的;一味的

the sublime confidence of youth 年輕人目空一切的自信

He battled on, in the sublime conviction that he was in the right.

他繼續戰鬥,深信自己有理。

He possesses sublime self-confidence.

The administration’s sublime incompetence is probably temporary…

He displayed a sublime indifference to the distinction between right and wrong.

 

  1. sponge (v.) Informal. To take advantage of the generosity of others:白白取得

To obtain free: sponge a meal

He spent his whole life sponging off his relatives.

他靠在眾親屬那兒蹭吃蹭喝過了一輩子。

He eats well by sponging off friends. 他敲詐朋友白吃白喝。

sponge cucumber = sponge gourd絲瓜

 

[T部分]

  1. take on (phr.)

1:具有;呈現

If something takes on a new appearance or quality, it develops that appearance or quality.

The insect can take on the color of its surroundings.

這種昆蟲能隨環境而變色。

Believing he had only a year to live, his writing took on a feverish intensity.

2:承擔If you take on a job or responsibility, especially a difficult one, you accept it.

He is unwilling to take on heavy responsibilities.

他不願承擔重任。

No other organization was able or willing to take on the job.

 

  1. telling (adj.)

1:強有力的;有明顯效果的;顯著的very important or effective

telling argument/criticism 有力的論據╱批評

The new colour scheme in the office has had a telling effect on morale.

His most telling weakness has been his failure to provide strategic vision.

The most telling condemnation of the system was that it failed to fulfil its function.

 

2:生動的;顯露真實面目的,說明問題的(經常並非有意)

showing or suggesting the truth about a situation, often in a way that was not intended

The number of homeless people is a telling comment on the state of society.

無家可歸者的數量是社會狀況的生動寫照。

This incident was a small yet telling example of the state of British society.

How a man shaves may be a telling clue to his age. (= revealing)

 

  1. tenure /’tɛnjɚ/ (n.)1.(重要政治職務的)任期,任職 2.(大學教師的)終身職位,長期聘用

his four-year tenure as President

他的四年總統任期

She knew that tenure of high political office was beyond her.

她知道自己與顯赫的政治地位無緣。

It’s still extremely difficult to get tenure.

要取得終身職位仍然極其困難。

It’s becoming increasingly difficult to acquire academic tenure.

During his tenure as dean, he had a real influence on the students.

She is one of the few lecturers in this department who has tenure.

 

[U部分]

  1. usurp (v.) (1)篡奪; 奪取;侵佔take the place of

(2)盜用to use without authority or right

Their position enabled them to usurp power.

他們所處的地位使其得以篡權。

He attempted to usurp the principal’s authority.

他企圖僭越校長的權力。

That magazine usurped copyrighted material.

那雜誌盜用了版權為他人所有的素材。

 

墨西哥經銷商Computec de Me的董事長羅哈斯與施振榮原是舊識,他在一九八九年開始代理宏碁電腦,一九九一年營業額成長了三倍,九二年攻下第一品牌的寶座,九四年市場佔有率達百分之三十二,成為宏碁「全球最傑出經銷商」。

 

The chairman of the board of directors of Mexico’s consignee company Computer de Mexico, Juan Manuel Rojas, was old friends with Stan Shih, and in 1989 he started the Acer computer agency. By 1991 sales volume had tripled, and by ‘ 92 they had usurped the throne of the top brand, and by 1994 had a 32% market share. Furthermore they had become Acer’s most outstanding sales agency worldwide.

 

  1. underscore (v.) 1: to draw a line under 2: to make evident

The recent tragedy underscores the danger of disregarding safety rules.

<arrived early to underscore the importance of the occasion>

 

[V部分]

  1. vested interest既得利益

They have a vested interest in keeping their club as exclusive as possible.

他們希望他們的俱樂部盡可能限制會員加入以從中受益。

Powerful vested interests (= people with a vested interest) are opposing the plan.

強大的既得利益集團在反對這計劃。

She thinks that lawyers have a vested interest in making the legal process move slowly.

 

  1. vis-a-vis (phr.)(FORMAL)

(prep.) 1: in relation to; with regard to對於

I’ve got to speak to James Lewis vis-a-vis the arrangements for Thursday.

Britain’s role vis-a-vis the United States

Even with major growth in the space industry, the authors say, it’s unlikely that rockets will become a significant issue vis-a-vis climate change. (Washington Post Nov 24, 2009)

What a figure would they make vis-à-vis his manly vivacity and dashing eloquence.

 

(prep.) 2: in comparison with與…相比較

The decline in the power of local authorities vis-a-vis central government is worrying.

It was felt that the company had an unfair advantage vis-a-vis smaller companies elsewhere.

She performed well vis-à-vis the rest of the competitors.

They had a major advantage vis-à-vis their competitors.

The (Czech) crown weakened vis-à-vis the euro.

 

  1. vicarious /vaɪ’kɛrɪəs/ (adj.)間接感受到;的替代的performed or suffered by one person as a substitute for another or to the benefit or advantage of another : SUBSTITUTIONARY <a vicarious sacrifice>

 

觀察學習(Observational learning)

又稱為「替代學習」(vicarious learning)、「社會學習」(social learning)或「建模」(modeling),是指由於觀察他人行為,而發生的行為或態度學習。對觀察學習的研究主要歸功於美國心理學家阿爾波特·班杜拉。進一步的研究已經開始,顯示觀察學習與經典條件反射和操作條件反射之間的關係。

 

felt or enjoyed through imagined participation in the experience of others: a vicarious thrill.

He got a vicarious thrill out of watching his son score the winning goal.

他看着兒子射入獲勝的一球,也同樣感到欣喜若狂。

They get a vicarious thrill from watching motor racing.

vicarious pleasure/satisfaction/excitement etcthe vicarious pleasure that parents get from their children’s success

She invents fantasy lives for her own vicarious pleasure.

 

[W部分]

  1. writ large (FORMAL) (1)顯而易見的;淺顯易懂的 (2)擴大了的;更明顯的

If one thing is another thing writ large, it is similar to it but larger or more obvious:

Hollywood is often said to be American society writ large.

Mistrust was writ large on her face. 她臉上明顯流露出不信任的神情。

The party’s new philosophies are little more than their old beliefs writ large.

這個政黨的新指導原則只不過是把舊有信條加以強調而已。

 

 

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2 Responses to [生字筆記]2011.06.11

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