《英語的評價系統:Linguistic resources for evaluation in English》

「無聊」的過去式、現在式、主詞補語、名詞形式在語意上有何不同?請觀察下列取自Goatly (2000)的例子:

Least serious (or least face-threatening)

  1. The lecturer bored me.
  2. The lecturer bores me.
  3. The lecturer is boring.
  4. The lecturer is a bore.

Most serious (or most face-threatening)

這個例子是在閱讀 Kong (2006)時讀到的。評價(evaluation)從詞彙到句法有各種不同形式,這些表達評價的詞語稱為評價詞(evaluator)。以上面例子來說,(2)比(1)還要嚴重(stronger accusation),因為過去式 bored 表示過去可能有特定某事(a particular incident)使我無聊,但這個無聊未來可能不會發生,現在式bores卻表示使我無聊是一種慣常性的事件(a habit or concurrent situation),所以(2)的 degree of assertiveness 比(1)高。

(3)的 boring 稱為 predicative adjective,因為它在謂語(predicate)的位置上,傳統文法書又叫主詞補語,補充說明主詞 the lecturer 的個人特質,不管是不是讓我無聊,the lecturer 本身就是一個走到哪都無聊的人,無聊程度又比(2)的 bores 重。無聊程度最重的就是(4)的名詞形式 a bore。be 動詞 is 是繫詞(copula),連接兩個對等成份,the lecturer 等於 a bore,所以它的無聊程度最重。

再看一個性質形容詞、謂語形容詞和副詞的例子:(取自 Kong 2006: 194)

  1. X (1995) made an unsuccessful attempt in identifying the factors.
  2. X (1995) was unsuccessful in identifying the factors.
  3. X (1995) identified the factors unsuccessfully.

(1)和(2)的 unsuccessful 都是形容詞,但是依其位置與功能不同,(1)稱為 attributive adjective (也就是包在名詞片語裡面的形容詞),(2)稱為 predicative adjective (放在謂語位置的形容詞)。這三句都是負面評價,但是負面評價的程度不同:(1)最輕(more implicit and indirect);(2)次之(more explicit and direct);(3)最重,因為副詞 unsuccessfully 是修飾整個前面的 X (1995) identified the factors。

綜合以上例子,Kong (2006: 194)給了一個評價等級表(implicitness/explicitness scale):

More implicit/less face-threatening

  • Attributive adjectives used as a pre-modifier of noun phrases
  • Verbs
  • Predicative adjectives
  • Adverbs
  • Nouns

More explicit/more face-threatening

同一個語詞的不同形式,由上而下越來越重,也就是評價越來越明顯,對聽者而言也造成更大的面子威脅(face-threatening)。

要在作者說明之前體會這些例子的不同,對於非母語人士來說的確相當困難,畢竟沒有那樣的語感。但話又說回來,這種語感是可以慢慢培養的,透過大量閱讀英文自然能慢慢增強對語意和語用的細部區分語感,各位唸語言學的朋友們應該很能體會我的意思,呵呵!

參考文獻:

Goatly, Andrew. 2000. Critical Reading and Writing: An Introductory Coursebook. London: Routledge.
Kong, Kenneth C. C. 2006. Linguistic resources as evaluators in English and Chinese research articles. Multilingua 25: 183-216.
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《看「全面啟動:Inception」學英文》

這是2010年上映的電影,我到了2011年的最後一天才看它,一方面是這一年來對夢與潛意識的主題產生極大興趣,一方面是前幾天才在論壇抓這部片(這什麼爛理由…)。電影劇本是導演Christopher Nolan耗費十年心血親手催生的孩子,與國片〈賽德克巴萊〉一樣,魏德聖在拍〈海角七號〉之前就已經開始寫劇本,寫了十年才籌到資金拍攝。

片名「Inception」有「啟動、開始」的意思,韋氏大學詞典的解釋是「an act, process, or instance of beginning: commencement」,台灣譯「全面啟動」,這同時讓我想到另外一部片「啟動原始碼:Source Code」。本片由李奧納多‧ 皮卡丘  狄卡皮歐主演,他的職業是商業間諜(corporate espionage),透過進入目標的潛意識(the subconscious minds),利用夢中夢的方式盜取重要資訊,因此大陸又翻成「盜夢者」(extractor,白話一點就是dream-stealer)。

趁剛看完對劇情還記憶猶新的時候,馬上找英文維基百科把簡介和劇情的描述看一遍,學習相關的關鍵字和表達方法。影片一開始就出現totem「圖騰」。第一次知道這個字是在看《巴朗詞表》的時候,印象非常深刻,同時我聯想到佛洛伊德 1913 年一本關於人類學與心理分析的著作,叫《圖騰與禁忌》(德文Totem und Tabu,英文Totem and Taboo)。在「全面啟動」中,圖騰是幫助主角Cobb(李奧納多飾演)和他老婆Mal區別夢境與現實的重要物品,如果那個陀螺(spinning top)可以一直轉不停,表示他們還在夢裡,而這也是Cobb和Mal最重要的情感連結。維基百科的敘述是:Each of the extractors carries a totem, a personalized small object whose behavior is unpredictable to anyone except its owner (使用同位語說明什麼是totem), to determine whether they are in another person’s dream. Cobb’s totem is a spinning top which perpetually spins in the dream state.

Mal在劇中的角色是 antagonist ,相對於李奧納多(protagonist)。身為盜夢者,有時候自己也會分不清是夢還是現實,尤其當對方與你在情感經驗上有強大連結的時候。因此李奧納多拼命想完成任務,然後回到現實與小孩團聚,潛意識裡老婆Mal卻一直出現使他無法專心,破壞他的努力 (to sabotage his efforts)。

整天作夢是李奧納多的工作,必須進入夢的世界才能執行任務,但除非他有成千上萬嗤嗤蟲隨時帶在身邊,不然怎能隨時說作夢就作夢? 原來他有化學家朋友Yusuf的幫助,幫他打鎮靜劑(sedative,動詞sedate),打完瞬間進入夢鄉。

為了得知Fischer的夢,他們分配好一個造夢計畫,共三層:

  • 第一層:Yusuf的夢,下雨天的倫敦街道,綁架(abduct)費雪,費雪潛意識裡的防衛投射(projections)成一群武裝傭兵(militarized subconscious)開始追殺李奧納多一行人。
  • 第二層:Arthur的夢,商務飯店(corporate hotel),彼得叔叔進場,到底彼得叔叔是否覬覦Fischer父親的遺產,綁架案是自導自演? 傭兵持續追殺。
  • 第三層:Ariadne的夢,高山上皚皚白雪覆蓋的武裝堡壘,保險箱(safe)裡的秘密就在這精心設計的迷宮(電影裡先出現maze,後來用labyrinth)中。傭兵鍥而不捨繼續追殺。

越深一層時間會過得越慢,第一層的一秒是第二層的十分鐘,第二層的十分鐘是第三層的半小時,所以執行任務時要算好時間差,分秒必爭,才能進入同一層夢。如果中間出了什麼差錯,可能就會進入無止盡的混沌狀態(limbo: a deep subconscious level where they may lose their grip on reality and be trapped indefinitely)。Limbo有點像佛教講的「劫」,前天看〈地藏王菩薩本願經:婆羅門女的故事〉裡面就有講到死後在地獄永不得超生的混頓狀態,感覺和「全面啟動」中在夢中死亡,回不到現實而墮入無底深淵limbo的概念很像。

夢者從深一層的夢回到上一層要透過撞擊,產生突然下墜或高處墜落,像是坐椅子往後仰差點摔倒的感覺。在影片裡有個特別的名稱叫做kick。維基百科的描述是:The dreamers will then ride a synchronized series of “kicks" (the van plunging off a bridge, a fall between hotel rooms, and a collapsing building) back up the levels to wake up to reality.

每一層夢發生的事件對下一層都有影響,所以第一層夢裡Yusuf開車彎來彎去(evasive driving)跑給傭兵追,在第二層旅館場景表現出來的就是重力場變來變去(distorted gravity),迫使旅館場景造夢者Arthur要improvise a kick「隨機應變、即興演出」,他把大夥綑起來一起搬進電梯,然後炸掉電梯纜繩(elevator shaft)產生急速下墜。第三層夢則是透過雪崩(avalanche)。每層夢透過第一層夢者Yusuf播放音樂(聽起來有點像法式香頌)做為暗號。

念文學的人或許對主角Cobb的心理轉折比較有興趣。Cobb在影片最後向團隊中唯一女性Ariadne懺悔,他拿老婆作思想植入的實驗(Inception: the planting of an original idea into a target’s subconscious),終於老婆Mal回到現實時還不認為她已經回到現實,跳樓結束自己生命。這是Cobb心中永遠的痛,他一直為此感到罪惡,也是這個罪惡感讓Mal在他的潛意識裡揮之不去,他必須不斷告訴自己眼前看到的Mal不是現實世界的人,只是夢中幻影。透過懺悔,Cobb的心靈得到淨化(to attain catharsis),因此在第三層夢時決定留下來找Saito。

Catharsis這個字很重要,是所有外文系學生在大一西洋文學概論課一定會遇到的字。來細讀韋氏大學詞典Merriam-Webster’s Collegiate Dictionary對catharsis的解釋:

  1.  : a purification or purgation that brings about spiritual renewal or release from tension
  2.  : elimination of a complex by bringing it to consciousness and affording it expression

Catharsis是心靈淨化,念文學的人可能會注意文本裡角色如何得到心靈淨化的曲折過程;念語言的可能會注意catharsis的搭配詞(collocation),也就是「得到」淨化在英文裡會用attain這個動詞。

最後要引述Cillian Murphy對所他扮演富二代Fischer這個角色的說法,純粹是因為裡面出現一個GRE單字:「Fischer was portrayed as a petulant child who’s in need of a lot of attention from his father, he has everything he could ever want materially, but he’s deeply lacking emotionally.」Petulant意思與peevish相近,兩者都有petulant/peevish child的搭配詞組合,讀書會時有特別提出來解釋過,這裡當作複習。

GRE字彙不勝枚舉,在瀏覽The New York Times關於「全面啟動」的報導時,就出現兩個我的睡前小書—綠色皮Vocabulary Builder—裡面的兩個單字:

1. phantasmagoric「變幻不定的」

Something phantasmagoric features wild and shifting images, colorful patterns that are continually moving and changing.

(此字一看就知道與phantasy有關,周杰倫有「范特西」,我有「飯特稀」。覺得冷可以自己加外套…)

2. delirium「精神錯亂、譫妄、狂熱」

an acute mental disturbance characterized by confused thinking and disrupted attention usually accompanied by disordered speech and hallucinations (比較常見的意義是frenzied excitement <he would stride about his room in a delirium of joy ― Thomas Wolfe>,注意粗體字的搭配用法。)

有太多東西可以學了,文章寫到這邊已2165字,最後送上Shooting Script的連結,也就是Christopher Nolan的電影劇本:http://www.raindance.org/site/scripts/Inception.pdf

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《看學術文章學英文:以心理學文章為例》

考GRE或托福的朋友很少是單純考自己爽的,通常是為了出國唸碩士或博士需要。既然是在學術界打拼,讀學術論文是家常便飯,如果能有意識地看英文 paper,在專業知識外吸取英文寫作的技巧,補充英文字彙和句型,假以時日自己也能寫出一篇有模有樣的英文學術論文。

本文以劍橋大學出版社(CUP)1988年出版的「The Psychology of Human Thought」中一篇文章為例,題為「A History of Thinking」,作者為Denise Dellarosa Cummins,截取四個值得欣賞的段落說明如何有意識地讀英文學術文章。

第一個段落

  • Unlike the behaviorists, however, the Gestaltists did not succeed in overthrowing their contemporaries’ hold on psychological investigation. This lack of success was due largely to two factors. First, Gestalt psychology produced no cohesive, testable theory of behavior or cognition, nor was its work guided by any vision of what such a theory should be. Gestalt psychology tended instead to define itself in terms of objections to behaviorist and structuralist doctrines.

第一,however根據英文文法可以放句首或第二個位置,這裡是放第二個位置,前後記得逗號。第二,overthrow最常見的搭配詞是government,表示推翻政府。這裡overthrowing their contemporaries’ hold on psychological investigation指的是推翻同時期其他心理學家的研究。第三,大家都知道「due to + 名詞片語」的結構,但可能不知道還可以加入largely修飾,變成「due largely to + 名詞片語」。第四,「nor was its work…should be」是倒裝句,注意看人家倒裝句是怎麼寫的。第五,我們可能死板板的寫「Instead, Gestalt psychology tended to define…」,不知道instead還可以移到tended和to中間變成「Gestalt psychology tended instead to define…」。以上五個就是我們閱讀英文學術文章時應建立的閱讀意識,應察覺並多加模仿。

第二個段落

  • It was not until the mid-1960s, however, that they came together (in rather scattershot fashion) to form a new psychology, one that Ulric Neisser dubbed cognitive psychology.

however再度出現在第二個位置,似乎這位作者對however偏愛放在第二個位置。「It was not until…」的語意邏輯要搞清楚,是「到了1960年代中期才…」。「one that…psychology」是「a new psychology」的同位語,雖然長了點,但仍是一個非常完整的名詞片語,一個Ulric Neisser稱之為「認知心理學」的新興心理學支派。

第三個段落

  • For example, Bruner, Goodnow, and Austin (1956) observed that, when learning to classify objects, humans tend to employ strategies that, among other things, minimize storage requirements.

作者的寫作風格似乎喜歡在that後面插入其他成份。「observed that…」和「employ strategies that…」的兩個that意義不同,前者是complementizer,後者是關係代名詞。「among other things」這個片語在學術文章少說見過幾十次,是非常常見的用法。

Michigan Corpus of Academic Spoken English

Google Book (American English) Corpus

BYU-BNC: British National Corpus

第四個段落

  • It is of some importance, then, to note that GPS analyzes and solves problems in the way described by Karl Duncker.

「It is of importance to note that…」等於「It is important to note that…」,差別在於第一個是名詞「of + importance」,第二個是形容詞「important」。這種用法可以類推到其他字,例如「It is useless to…」等於「It is of no use to…」。「of + 名詞」是比較高級一點的寫法,至少我在學術文章裡面看到的都是「of + 名詞」,高中生寫作文才用形容詞。

以上四個段落輔以簡單分析,希望讓大家知道何謂閱讀意識。研究生要讀跟山一樣高的英文paper,有些paper寫得好,裡面的英文值得一讀再讀;有些卻只是學科專有名詞堆砌起來,毫無生氣的文章。就我個人經驗,理工科的學科專有名詞密度非常高,整篇文章也以客觀實驗呈現為主,所以文章讀起來缺少「文章」的感覺,比較呆板。人文學科的文章不一樣,語言能力對人文學科而言是基本吃飯工具,所以在文字與作文結構上會絞盡腦汁,琢磨再琢磨,讀起來自然比較有「文章」的感覺。關於理工與人文領域論文風格差異有人專門研究,也已有多篇博碩士論文。

張貼在 GRE/TOEFL/IELTS/TOEIC/GEPT, GRE與托福學術英文字彙精進, 中英翻譯, 人文學院 | 2 則迴響

《看小說學英文:以「達文西密碼」為例》

準備工具:

  1. The Da Vinci Code. 2003. Dan Brown.
  2. 粉彩筆一支(挑自己喜歡的顏色)
  3. Google Doc 雲端字彙筆記本
  4. Lingoes靈格斯

學習要訣:

  • 保持警覺(awareness)地看過去,不要停下來查字典。
  • 同一個單字遇到兩次以上請用粉彩筆畫起來,看到好的「搭配詞」也請畫起來。
  • 看到一個段落後(例如10個chapter),從畫粉彩筆的單字或搭配詞中,挑最重要的或是你喜歡的10個查字典,並記錄下來。

舉例說明:

似乎是作者丹布朗個人的寫作風格,第4頁和第11頁出現兩次相同片語「a surge of」。雖然還不知道這個片語的意思,但在短短的範圍內連續出現兩次,有其重要性,需要用粉彩筆畫起來:

  1. The curator felt a surge of adrenaline. 館長突然間覺得腎上腺素飆高。
  2. Langdon felt a sudden surge of uneasiness. 蘭登博士突然感覺一陣不適。

「a surge of」是「a sudden increase of an emotion」的意思,好像一陣波濤襲來的感覺。劍橋高級學習詞典給的例句是 She was overwhelmed by a surge of remorse. 再多看幾個字典都有 「a surge of」的用法,所以可視為某種形式的搭配詞。另外一個搭配詞的例子是第56頁的 launch into a reprimand

  • Fache drew a seething inhalation, clearly preparing to launch into a reprimand.   法舍大口吸氣,很明顯準備開砲。

reprimand是「訓斥、責罵」的意思,launch into a reprimand 可視為一組搭配詞,整個背起來。

除此之外,〈達文西密碼〉裡也出現許多GRE單字。不管你是背吳帆的〈TOEFL GRE字彙贏家〉〈巴朗詞表〉,還是〈GRE字彙紅寶書〉,都可以在小說裡找到許多曾經背過或似曾相識的字,例如:inane (p.9)、revulsion (p.11)、concur (p.13)、disparate (p.16)、aficionado (p1.8)、penchant (p.24)、apostle (p.26)、impeccably (p.27)、neophyte (p.32)、conjure (p.36)、Draconian (p.47)、indictment (p.51)、pedophilia (p.53)、dilapidated (p.60)、vista (p.62)等等,數都數不完。由此可見GRE單字並不像某些人認為的如此冷僻,還是常常可以遇到。只要保持警覺,用粉彩筆畫下來,注意上下文(context)文意,先試著由文章脈絡猜單字意思,如果真的很喜歡那個單字,可以讀到一個段落後再查字典。

好玩的是,我在〈達文西密碼〉第59頁讀到這個句子:

  • The pain was inconsequential compared with the anguish of his [註:指 Silas] life before Opus Dei had saved him.

其中「inconsequential」這個字也出現在大陸〈新制GRE官方指南〉第62頁第8題的選項(E),意思是「微不足道的、不重要的」(trivial or insignificant),不容易從「consequence」的一般意思「結果、結局」推出,所以特別容易忘記。在小說中看到又加深一次印象,並提醒自己要查字典,不能再忘了。

英文寫作方面,與學術論文最不同的是小說充滿人物描寫和情感刻畫。像是描寫患有白化症(albino),當時年僅七歲的Silas親眼目睹家暴父親把母親打死,無力又無助地站在母親遺體旁邊:

  • The boy stood over his lifeless mother and felt an unbearable upwelling of guilt for permitting it to happen. (p.60)

Silas對於自己眼睜睜看著父親打母親感到一股無法承受、油然而生的罪惡感(an unbearable upwelling of guilt),而且被打死的母親不是用 dead mother,而是 lifeless mother「已無生命的媽媽」,lifeless比起dead更傳神、更細緻,這就是作家與一般人不同的地方,在選字上更能切中要害,值得我們學習。

另外一個我很喜歡的片段是描寫女主角Sophie的外貌:

  • This woman was healthy with an unembellished beauty and genuineness that radiated a striking personal confidence. (p.56)

Sophie的美貌(beauty)是「unembellished」未加裝飾地,並且像陽光般散發出自信的光芒(radiated a striking personal confidence)。我承認要是我寫,大概只會用beautiful或是showed great confidence之類普通到不行的字句,不會想到可以用unembellished修飾beauty,用radiate表達自信光芒四射的樣子。

像這樣的人物刻畫和情感描寫,小說裡俯拾即是。其他像是緊張的動作場面、懸疑詭譎的氣氛、心機的密謀策畫等等,丹布朗都用很生動細膩的英文呈現,非常值得我們這些以英文為外語的學生細讀且加以模仿。雖然學術寫作不是寫小說,不用刻畫人物角色,但好英文多讀無害,陶冶性情之餘也可提升個人英文語感,摸蛤蜊兼洗褲,一舉數得,何樂而不為。

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Collocation 詞語搭配

Google到的網路資料: http://www.oupchina.com.hk/oxforddict/pdf/OA6SP_B04-05.pdf

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我的作文: Reflections on Susan Glaspell’s Trifles

Reflections on Susan Glaspell’s Trifles

 

1.      Introduction

In search of evidence and Mrs. Wright’s motive behind the murder of her husband, the sheriff, county attorney, and Mr. Hale came to the farmhouse to investigate the crime scene; the crucial evidence for the motive for the murder, however, was found by Mrs. Peters (the sheriff’s wife) and Mrs. Hale, two women who are considered concerning only “trifles” by the three men.

On the surface, Minnie’s (Mrs. Wright) dismal life commenced after she married an oppressive husband, who is also taciturn, implying a temperamental disinclination to speech and connoting unsociability. Minnie’s private agony, the motive for the murder, was kept a secret by Mrs. Peters and Mrs. Hale’s deliberate cover-up. Beneath the surface, it is a vocalization of women’s voice which is unheard at the turn of twentieth century.

This paper first examines the use of images and symbols in the short story and how they are related to the major themes of the story. Second, the discussion apropos of gender differences in language use and conversational behavior is elucidated. At the end of this paper is a concise conclusive remark on Susan Glaspell’s Trifles.

2.      The Use of Images and Symbols in Trifles

The first example is the symbol of a small canary, which is “from a singing bird to a muted caged bird” (Mustazza 494). Minnie represents the muted, caged, and strangled canary. To pass the time of day with her husband (John Wright) is “just like a raw wind that gets to the bone” and, as described by Mrs. Hale, “he was a hard man” (Glaspell 1079). As a childless woman, the canary bird is Minnie’s best friend and can be regarded as the incarnation of Minnie’s spirit. Before marriage, “she was kind of like a bird herself—real sweet and pretty, but kind of timid and—fluttery” (Glaspell 1079). Later, the physical death of the canary makes Mrs. Hake establish the connection of Minnie’s spiritual death and her husband’s involvement of the canary’s death (Russell 89). “Through traditional literary metaphor of the bird’s song as the voice of the soul, the women acknowledge that John Wright not only killed Minnie’s canary, but her very spirit” (Makowsky 62).

The second example is the pun on the surname of “Minnie Foster Wright,” “marking Minnie’s lack of ‘right’ and implying her ‘right’ to free herself from the societally sanctioned ‘right’ of her husband to control the family” (Ben-Zvi 154). John Wright is not Minnie Foster’s “Mr. Right.” On the contrary, he refused Mr. Hale’s invitation to arrange a party telephone line, keeping her isolated from other neighbors. John Wright is described as a hard-working farmer who kept to himself, and that is exactly what he did in the same way to his wife. Mrs. Hale demonstrates this point very clearly:

“She didn’t even belong to the Ladies Aid. I suppose she felt she couldn’t do her part, and then you don’t enjoy things when you feel shabby. She used to wear pretty clothes and be lively, when she was Minnie Foster, one of the town girls singing in the choir. But that—oh, that was thirty years ago.”

(Glaspell 1077)

The devastating effect of isolation, especially on women, is one of the themes of the play (Glenn 221). The isolation of Minnie makes Mrs. Peters reminisce about her homesteading with her husband in the Dakota countryside and, with dread, her only child died (Glaspell 1081). It is women’s collective feeling of loneliness and isolation that Mrs. Peters and Mrs. Hale commiserate with Minnie Foster.

3.      The Use of Language in Trifles

One topic which is worth being explored in Trifles is the gender difference in language use. Sociolinguist Deborah Tannen dichotomizes the concepts of “report-talk” and “rapport-talk” in her famous book You Just Don’t Understand: Women and Men in Conversation (1990, 111-112). “For most men,” according to Tannen’s elaboration of “report-talk,” “talk is primarily a means to preserve independence and negotiate and maintain status in a hierarchical social order. This is done by exhibiting knowledge and skill, and by holding center stage through verbal performance such as storytelling, joking, or imparting information” (Tannen 112). In Trifles, the conversation between county attorney and Mr. Hale reveals how men communicate with each other in a “report-talk” way:

County Attorney: Well, Mr. Hale, tell just what happened when you came

here yesterday morning.

Hale: Harry and I had started to town with a load of potatoes … … though I

said to Harry that I didn’t know as what his wife wanted made much

difference to John—

County Attorney: Let’s talk about that later, Mr. Hale. I do want to talk

about that, but tell now just what happened when you got to the house.

(Glaspell 1074)

Because of Mr. Hale’s digression from conversation topic, the county attorney reiterates his questions. Instead of focusing on the coherence and logic in conversation, women’s “rapport-talk” is “a way of establishing connections and negotiating relationships. Emphasis is placed on displaying similarities and matching experiences” (Tannen 111):

Mrs. Peters: [Who has gone to a small table … and lifted one end of a towel

that covers a pan.] She had bread set. [Stands still.]

… … … … … … (ellipsis of some paragraphs) … … … … … …

Mrs. Peters: … … … Yes, here it is. [Quickly shuts door leading upstairs.]

(Glaspell 1076-1077)

The difference in conversation behavior between men and women, as argued by Mann, is that “men operate from an ethos of self-reliance and competition and strive to be first with a quick, firm answer” while “women value cooperation and work to interconnect, taking time to make up their minds” (Mann 382).

4.      Conclusion

Trifles demonstrates a fundamental difference between men and women. That difference culminates, finally, “in the establishing of two competing ethical paradigms” (Holstein 282). Showing empathy for the arduousness of Minnie’s life, Mrs. Peters and Mrs. Hale choose to “knot” what they know about the motive for the crime and do “not” share it to the men (Holstein 290). This is the final line of the play, a line replete with interpretations. Silence is in justice, and fate is not so inexorable if women follow the path to sisterhood.

                                                            Works Cited

Ben-Zvi, Linda. “Murder, She Wrote: The Genesis of Susan Glaspell’s Trifles.”

           Theatre Journal 44.2 (May 1992): 141-162.

Glaspell, Susan. “Trifles.” The Norton Introduction to Literature. Ed. Alison Booth

and Kelly J. Mays. New York: W.W. Norton & Company, 2010. 1073-1082.

Glenn, Lane A. Drama for Students. Ed. David Galens. Vol. 8. Detroit: Gale, 2002.

216-233.

Holstein, Suzy Clarkson. “Silent Justice in a Different Key: Glaspell’s Trifles.”

           Midwest Quarterly: A Journal of Contemporary Thought 44.3 (2003): 282-290.

Mael, Phyllis. “Trifles: The Path to Sisterhood.” Literature Film Quarterly 17 (1989):

281-284.

Makowsky, Veronica. Susan Glaspell’s Century of American Women: A Critical

           Interpretation of Her Work. New York: Oxford University Press, 1993.

Mann, Judith. The Difference: Growing Up Female in America. New York: Warner,

1994.

Mustazza, Leonard. “Generic Translation and Thematic Shift in Susan Glaspell’s

           Trifles and A Jury of Her Peers.” Studies in Short Fiction 26 (1989): 489-96.

Russell, Judith Kay. “Glaspell’s Trifles.” The Explicator (January 1997): 88-90.

Tannen, Deborah. You Just Don’t Understand: Women and Men in Conversation. New

York: Morrow, 1990.

(共1212字)

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心智圖試做: 字根sist,stat,stit衍生單字

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[msdn] Visual Basic 命名慣例

當您在 Visual Basic 應用程式中為項目命名時,該名稱的第一個字元必須是字母字元或底線。 但請注意,以底線開頭的名稱不符合 Common Language Specification (CLS) 標準。以下為適用於命名的建議。

  • 名稱中的每一個單字以大寫字母做為開頭,例如 FindLastRecord 與 RedrawMyForm。
  • 函式與方法名稱以動詞做為開頭,例如 InitNameArray 或 CloseDialog。
  • 類別 (Class)、結構、模組和屬性 (Property) 名稱會以名詞做為開頭,例如 EmployeeName 或 CarAccessory。

  • 介面名稱以 “I" 前置字元做為開頭,之後並接著一個名詞或名詞片語 (例如 IComponent),或是接著可描述介面行為的形容詞 (例如 IPersistable)。 不要使用底線,並且盡量不要使用縮寫,因為縮寫可能導致混淆。
  • 事件處理常式名稱以名詞為開頭,以描述其後跟隨 “EventHandler" 後置詞的事件類型,例如 “MouseEventHandler"。
  • 在事件引數類別的名稱中,包含 “EventArgs" 後置詞。
  • 如果事件擁有「之前」、「之後」的概念,請使用現在式或過去式的後置字元,例如在 “ControlAdd" 或 “ControlAdded" 中。
  • 對於冗長或常用的詞彙,可使用縮寫以使名稱保持合理的長度,例如使用 “HTML",而不使用 “Hypertext Markup Language"。 一般來說,變數名稱大於 32 個字元者將會難以在低解析度的螢幕上閱讀。 此外,確認您的縮寫名稱在整個應用軟體中維持一致。 在專案中隨意變換 “HTML" 與 “Hypertext Markup Language" 會造成混淆。
  • 避免在內部範圍使用與外部範圍相同的名稱。 存取不正確的變數會導致錯誤發生。 若名稱相同的變數與關鍵字產生衝突,則您必須以適當的型別程式庫前置關鍵字來識別之。 例如,如果有一個名為 Date 的變數,則您只能藉由呼叫 DateTime.Date 的方式,使用內建的 Date 函式。
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Arguments (Introduction to Ethos, Pathos, and Logos)

[http://writingcenter.tamu.edu/2013/types-communication/academic-writing/arguments-introduction-to-ethos-pathos-and-logos/]

[http://courses.durhamtech.edu/perkins/aris.html]

A General Summary of Aristotle’s Appeals . . .

The goal of argumentative writing is to persuade your audience that your ideas are valid, or more valid than someone else’s. The Greek philosopher Aristotle divided the means of persuasion, appeals, into three categories–Ethos, Pathos, Logos.

Ethos (Credibility), or ethical appeal, means convincing by the character of the author. We tend to believe people whom we respect. One of the central problems of argumentation is to project an impression to the reader that you are someone worth listening to, in other words making yourself as author into an authority on the subject of the paper, as well as someone who is likable and worthy of respect.

Pathos (Emotional) means persuading by appealing to the reader’s emotions. We can look at texts ranging from classic essays to contemporary advertisements to see how pathos, emotional appeals, are used to persuade. Language choice affects the audience’s emotional response, and emotional appeal can effectively be used to enhance an argument.

Logos (Logical) means persuading by the use of reasoning. This will be the most important technique we will study, and Aristotle’s favorite. We’ll look at deductive and inductive reasoning, and discuss what makes an effective, persuasive reason to back up your claims. Giving reasons is the heart of argumentation, and cannot be emphasized enough. We’ll study the types of support you can use to substantiate your thesis, and look at some of the common logical fallacies, in order to avoid them in your writing.

 


Ethos, Pathos, and Logos.

Logos (Greek for ‘word’) refers to the internal consistency of the message–the clarity of the claim, the logic of its reasons, and the effectiveness of its supporting evidence. The impact of logos on an audience is sometimes called the argument’s logical appeal.

Ethos (Greek for ‘character’) refers to the trustworthiness or credibility of the writer or speaker. Ethos is often conveyed through tone and style of the message and through the way the writer or speaker refers to differing views. It can also be affected by the writer’s reputation as it exists independently from the message–his or her expertise in the field, his or her previous record or integrity, and so forth. The impact of ethos is often called the argument’s ‘ethical appeal’ or the ‘appeal from credibility.’

[P]athos (Greek for ‘suffering’ or ‘experience’) is often associated with emotional appeal. But a better equivalent might be ‘appeal to the audience’s sympathies and imagination.’ An appeal to pathos causes an audience not just to respond emotionally but to identify with the writer’s point of view–to feel what the writer feels. In this sense, pathos evokes a meaning implicit in the verb ‘to suffer’–to feel pain imaginatively…. Perhaps the most common way of conveying a pathetic appeal is through narrative or story, which can turn the abstractions of logic into something palpable and present. The values, beliefs, and understandings of the writer are implicit in the story and conveyed imaginatively to the reader. Pathos thus refers to both the emotional and the imaginative impact of the message on an audience, the power with which the writer’s message moves the audience to decision or action.

[The above text drawn verbatim from Ramage, John D. and John C. Bean. Writing Arguments. 4th Edition. Needham Heights, MA: Allyn & Bacon, 1998, 81-82.] http://www.u.arizona.edu/ic/polis/courses021/ENGL_102-78/EthosPathosLogos

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國立新竹教育大學: 台灣語言研究論文寫作課程

課程網址: http://ocw.nhcue.edu.tw/course/view.php?id=17

台灣語言研究論文寫作課程

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Samuel Johnson: The Dictionary Man

Samuel Johnson (18 September 1709 [O.S. 7 September] – 13 December 1784), often referred to as Dr Johnson, was an English writer who made lasting contributions to English literature as a poet, essayist, moralist, literary critic, biographer, editor and lexicographer. Johnson was a devoutAnglican and committed Tory, and has been described as “arguably the most distinguished man of letters in English history".[1] He is also the subject of “the most famous single work of biographical art in the whole of literature": James Boswell‘s Life of Samuel Johnson.[2]

[Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Samuel_Johnson]

 

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Language evolving: Some systemic functional reflections on the history of meaning

Webcast sponsored by the Irving K. Barber Learning Centre, and hosted by the Department of Language and Literacy Education and the Faculty of Education as part of the plenary session at the 37th International Systemic Functional Congress, Halliday poses the evolution of language seems a simple enough concept: it arose in the work of scholars studying the history of linguistic forms (phonology, morphology, some syntax). But a language is a semiotic system; more importantly a semogenic, or meaning-creating, system; and meaning also has a history – a highly complex one. Every language has, in Sapir’s term, a “certain cut", its own (constantly evolving) ways of meaning; yet most of its features are shared with other languages. We seek out the history of meaning along various routes: in the history of the form of language, in the history of the people that speak it, in the history of the locale where it is spoken, and in the history of its varied cultural contexts. Consider English and Chinese, as two widely spoken and widely-documented languages. The history of meaning in English includes changes that took place in ancient Greek and in ancient and medieval Latin, even though English is not “descended from" these languages; Chinese has undergone somewhat less upheaval, but the history of Mandarin involved contact with ways of meaning derived from Sanskrit and from Mongolian, both also “unrelated" to Chinese. I think that, to study the history of meaning, we take account of both child language development and the emergence of learned forms of discourse; we maintain a trinocular perspective; and we seek systemic and functional (especially metafunctional) explanations of semiotic patterns in discourse.

 

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Lives in Linguistics: Theo Vennemann, in a conversation with Haj Ross

 

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Studying Linguistics at MIT in the First Decade of Generative Grammar

 

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50 years of Linguistics at MIT: Lecture 10

Morris Halle reflects on the history of the MIT Linguistics Department and his more than 60 years at MIT.

 

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50 years of Linguistics at MIT: Lecture 9

The notion of derivations in linguistics: Howard Lasnik (1972), Andrew Nevins (2005), Paul Kiparsky (1965), Tom Bever (1967)

 

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50 years of Linguistics at MIT: Lecture 8

Representations in phonology: Bruce Hayes (1980), Janet Pierrehumbert (1980), Lisa Selkirk (1972)

 

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